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Implementing Response to Intervention (RTI) at the Secondary Level: A Tool in Necessary Service Delivery Reform. Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. National Louis University 847-275-7200 [email protected] http://markshinn.org.

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slide1
Implementing Response to Intervention (RTI) at the Secondary Level:A Tool in Necessary Service Delivery Reform
  • Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D.National Louis University
  • 847-275-7200
  • [email protected]
  • http://markshinn.org
slide2
Look..Why Don’t You Give Yourself Up Quietly or This Could Turn Into a Feeding Frenzy and No One Wants That!
slide3

I’m Presuming We’re Here to Chase Windmills: Seriously Attempting to Build and Sustain a Secondary Problem-Solving Service Delivery System

so what is rti response to intervention
So...WHAT is RTI (Response to Intervention)?
  • 1. An eligibility process for determining if a student has a learning disability?
  • 2. An opportunity to redress years of dissatisfaction with both special education and general education?
slide5

RTI is Legally ONLY an Eligibility Process--and Only for Learning Disabilities

  • `(6) SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES-
  • `(A) IN GENERAL- Notwithstanding section 607(b), when determining whether a child has a specific learning disability as defined in section 602, the local educational agency shall not be required to take into consideration whether the child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in oral expression, listening comprehension, written expression, basic reading skill, reading comprehension, mathematical calculation, or mathematical reasoning.
  • `(B) ADDITIONAL AUTHORITY- In determining whether a child has a specific learning disability, a local educational agency may use a process which determines if a child responds to scientific, research-based interventionas a part of the evaluation procedures in paragraphs (2) and (3).
slide6

RTI as Eligibility Statement is Important, But So are Other Legal ElementsIndividuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA) Eligibility Determination

  • (5) SPECIAL RULE FOR ELIGIBILITY DETERMINATION- In making a determination of eligibility under paragraph (4)(A), a child shall not be determined to be a child with a disability if the determinant factor for such determination is--
  • `(A) lack of appropriate instruction in reading, including in the essential components of reading instruction (as defined in section 1208(3) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965);
  • `(B) lack of instruction in math; or
  • `(C) limited English proficiency.
and not just reading and math proposed regulations
And Not Just Reading and Math:ProposedRegulations
  • (b) For a child suspected of having a specific learning disability, the group must consider, as part of the evaluation described in §§300.304 through 300.306, data that demonstrates that--
  • (1) Prior to, or as a part of the referral process, the child was
  • provided appropriate high-quality, research-based instruction in regular education settings, consistent with section 1111(b)(8)(D) and (E) of the ESEA, including that the instruction was delivered by qualified personnel; and
slide8

RTI Becomes the “Thin Edge of the Wedge” to Fix Some Broken Things

Batsche, G. M., Elliott, J., Graden, J., Grimes, J., Kovaleski, J. F., Prasse, D., et al. (2005). Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Inc.

what s broken secondary education for many students
What’s Broken?Secondary Education for Many Students
  • High Expectations for Student Achievement--And Always Increasing
  • Students w Moderate to Severe Educational and/or Behavioral Needs--Big Prerequisite Skill Deficits
  • Students with a Long History of Failure--Poor Motivation and Lots of Escape Driven Behavior
  • General Education Teachers with Limited Pedagogical and Behavior Support Skill and Poorly Designed-If Any--Instructional Materials
  • Students’ Programs Being Driven by Graduation Requirements Rather Than Instructional Needs
signs secondary education for many students
Signs?Secondary Education for Many Students
  • Never Ending Referrals for Special Education--In Some Ways, There Shouldn’t Be RTI at the Secondary Level
  • Lots of 504 Plans-A Cry for Required Range of Teaching Skills
  • General Education “Representatives” at Team Meetings--Turned Off and Not Meaningfully Required
  • School Psychologists Who Do Mostly Re-Evaluations and Initial Referrals
administrator interviews
Administrator Interviews
  • All administrators state that they want to help students with disabilities succeed (17 of 17)
  • Administrators do not have method for evaluating the outcomes of special education programs (8 of 9 schools)
  • Administrators do not have a plan for the improvement of special education programs (8 of 9 schools)

from Don Deshler, Ph.D. University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. Presentation to Long Island Association of Special Education Administrators; January 16-17, 2003

administrator interviews12
Administrator Interviews
  • Schools generally don’t have a written policy related to inclusion (8 of 9)
  • Special education administrators aren’t familiar with standards-based instruction (8 of 8)
  • Special education administrators aren’t familiar with the academic paths available within general education (7 of 8)

from Don Deshler, Ph.D. University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. Presentation to Long Island Association of Special Education Administrators; January 16-17, 2003

administrator interviews13
Administrator Interviews
  • General education teachers and special education teachers are two separate camps (7 of 9 schools)
    • Budgets are separate
    • Staff development is separate
    • General education teachers do not get training related to students with disabilities and other at-risk students
    • Planning time is separate
    • Roles are separate, and responsibilities are not shared related to students with disabilities and other at-risk students
    • Hostility is apparent bilaterally

from Don Deshler, Ph.D. University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. Presentation to Long Island Association of Special Education Administrators; January 16-17, 2003

slide14

Type A

Courses taught by

SPED teachers for

SPED students

Type B

Courses for low

achievers and

at-risk students

Type C

Rigorous courses

with heterogeneous

groups of students with supports

Type D

Advanced Placement

courses

Type E

Other courses

(e.g., vo tech electives)

Current Service

Options

for

Students

With

Disabilities

Taught

by general education teachers

slide15

A t___ came al___ the r________.

“Frog, tell that t______

to go away,” said Toad.

“I do not want him to see me

in my b____ing s_____

when I come out of the r_____.”

Frog swam over to the t_____.

An Illustration of the Problem: Reading

From Lobel A. (1970). Frog and Toad are Friends. New York: Harper-Trophy.

slide16
2. Students with Some (Limited) Reading Skills

These are in______and cHallinGinG times for anyone whose pRoFEshuNle res________ are ________in any way to liTiRucY outcomes among school children. For, in sport of all our new NaWLEGe about reading and reading iNstRukshun, there is a wide-speeded con______ that public EdgUkAshuN is not as eFfEktIve as it shood be in tEecHiNg all children to read.

slide17

These are interesting and challenging times for anyone whose professional responsibilities are related in any way to literacy outcomes among school children. For, in spite of all our new knowledge about reading and reading instruction, there is a wide-spread concern that public Education is not as effective as it should be in teaching all children to read.

slide18
3. Students with Basic Reading Skills Who Are Faced with Reading Tasks Like ThisText Characteristics
  • 139 Word Passage
  • 22.8 Words per Sentence
  • 4.7 Characters Per Word
  • Flesch-Kincaid Readability 9.1
let s read
Let’s Read
  • Publius Servillius Vatia Isauricus was a quiet man. Loyalty ran in the family; his father, a great plebian aristocrat, had cleaved to Sulla and remained one of Sulla’s greatest supporters until that difficult, contrary man died. But because the father was a quiet man, he adjusted to life in a post-Sullan Rome with grace and some style, did not lose the massive clout which an old name and a huge fortune brought with it. Probably seeing something of Sulla in Caesar, the father before his death had liked him; the son simply carried on the family tradition. He had been a praetor in the year Appius Claudius Censor and Ahenobarbus were consuls, and had soothed boni fears by prosecuting one of Caesar’s legates. Not an aberration but a deliberate ploy; Gaius Messius was not important to Caesar.
answer these questions
Answer These Questions
  • Who was Publius Serviliius Vatia Isauricus and why was he so important to Caesar?
  • Who was his father?
  • What was it he might have seen in Caesar that reminded him of Sulla?
  • How long ago had he been praetor?
  • Why might his father have lost his clout and fortune after Sulla?
  • Why was it important to soothe the boni’s fears?
slide21

Sum of Squares and Cross Products

In the univariate analysis of variance, the total sum of squares of the dependent variable is partitioned into two components: pooled within-groups sum of squares and between-groups sum of squares. With multiple dependent variables it is, of course, possible to calculate the within and between sums of squares for each of them. In addition, the total sum of cross products between any two variables can be partitioned into pooled within-groups sum of products and between-groups sum of products.

slide22

The procedure is actually quite simple. First, you arrange things into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step, otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run, this may not seem important, but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. After the procedure is completed, one arranges the materials into different groups again. Then they can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually, they will be used once more and the whole cycle will have to be repeated. At first, the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another fact of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then one can never tell.

slide23

Doing the Laundry

The procedure is actually quite simple. First, you arrange things into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step, otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run, this may not seem important, but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. After the procedure is completed, one arranges the materials into different groups again. Then they can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually, they will be used once more and the whole cycle will have to be repeated. At first, the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another fact of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then one can never tell.

what s the good news
What’s the Good News?
  • People Who Work at Secondary Care
  • Secondary Personnel Know Things Are Broken
  • Secondary Personnel Know They Weren’t Prepared to Meet the Needs of Diverse Students
  • Secondary Personnel Are Eager to Learn, IF LEARNING IS SUPPORTED
  • We Have a Better Model
  • We Can Match Student Programs with their Needs Better
  • We Have Better Tools and Skills
slide26

The Secondary Problem:

If All You Have is a Hammer, Everything Starts to Look Like a Nail

~5%

~15%

If the Only Supports for General Education Teachers with Students WITHOUT

• Prerequisites, Especially Reading

• Study and Organizational Skills

• Interest and Motivation

and WITH

Negative and Disruptive Behavior is Special Education, Every Student Will Look SE

~80% of Students

slide27

Using a 3-Tier Model

The Middle School Problem:

Only TIER 3 Programs (SE)

and Often with Little Use of Evidence-Based Programs

~5%

~15%

Tutoring

Weak, Time Limited (1 Period Per Day) Reading Interventions

~80% of Students

slide28

The High School Problem:

ONLY TIER 3 Programs That Often Don’t Provide What Students Need

~5%

~15%

Content Area Tutoring

Help with Homework

Alternative Content Area Courses (Often Taught by Non-Credentialed Persons)

Little Attention to Tier I Improvement of Teacher Effectiveness

~80% of Students

slide29

The Path

Use

Scientifically Based Tools that are Best Practices at the Elementary Level to Identify Students’ Educational Needs

Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM)

scientific standards for progress monitoring

Reliability

Quality of Good Test

Validity

Quality of Good Test

Sufficient Number of Alternate Forms and of Equal Difficulty

Essential for Progress Monitoring

Evidence of Sensitivity to Improvement or to Effects of intervention

Critical for Progress Monitoring

Benchmarks of Adequate Progress and Goal Setting

Critical for Progress Monitoring

Rates of Improvement are Specified

Critical for Progress Monitoring

Evidence of Impact on Teacher Decision Making instruction or Student Achievement;

Critical for Formative Evaluation

Evidence of Improved Instruction and Student Achievement;

Gold Standard for Progress Monitoring

Logistically Feasible--Low Cost, Efficient, Accurate,

Critical for IMPLEMENTATION

Scientific Standards for Progress Monitoring
what does r cbm measure

Phonemic Awareness

Alphabetic Understanding

Fluency

Vocabulary

Comprehension

What Does R-CBM Measure?

ALL

These Skills

General Reading Skill

OR

curriculum based measurement cbm of basic skills

Area

Measure

Comment

Reading

Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement (R-CBM); 1 Min Sample of Oral Reading from Standard Passages

Words Read Correctly

Errors

Best Single Measure; Most Sensitive to Between Person Differences and Among Persons

Reading

Maze CBM; 3 minute silent reading multiple-choice cloze test using from Standard Passages

No. of Items Correct

Best for Intermediate Grades and Older; Corroborative Tool

Written Expression

Written Expression CBM- WE CBM; 3 minutes writing, given a standard story starter

Total Words Written;

CorrectWriting Sequences

Useful for Screening and Progress Monitoring of Basic Writing Skills

Spelling

Spelling CBM S-CBM; 2 minutes writing orally dictated words from standard grade-level spelling lists

Correct Letter Sequences

Very Sensitive to Between Person Differences and Among Persons

Math

Math Computation CBM (M-CBM)

Students write answers to standard computational problems for 2-4 minutes

Correct Digits

Useful for Screening and Progress Monitoring of Basic Math Computation Skills

Math

Math Application CBM (CBM-Apps)

Students write answers to standard application problems for 4 minutes

Correct Problems

Useful for Screening and Progress Monitoring of Math Application

Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) of Basic Skills
slide38

Indirect Special

Education inGE

Classrooms

Mainstream

Consultation

Agreements

Instruction in Content

Area Knowledge

Instruction in Basic

or Literacy Skills

Direct Service in

Special Education

Master Content

Area Knowledge

Master Basic or

Literacy Skills

Basic Skill Discrepancy?

CBM

YES

NO

What Service?

How?

Goal?

Evaluation Tool?

slide39

• Motivation &

Engagement

• Active Reading

Strategies

• Monitoring Strategies

• Fix-Up Strategies

•Life Experience

• Content Knowledge

• Activation of Prior

Knowledge

• Knowledge about

Texts

• Oral Language Skills

• Knowledge of Language

Structures

• Vocabulary

• Cultural Influences

Language

Fluency*

We Refer to It as

General Reading Skills

Reading

Comprehension

Metacognition

Knowledge

• Prosody

• Automaticity/Rate

• Accuracy

• Decoding

• Phonemic Awareness

*modified slightly from presentations by Joe Torgeson, Ph.D. Co-Director, Florida Center for Reading Research; www.fcrr.org

slide40

First Things First!

The High School and Middle School Solution

EFFECTIVE TIER 3 Programs Using Evidence-Based Programs

Corrective Reading (SRA)

Reading Mastery (SRA)

REWARDS (Sopris West)

Read Naturally

Wilson

For Student Who Need Them

~5%

~15%

~80% of Students

slide41

First Things FirstWhen Needs Are Clear, Write Scientifically Based IEP Goals and Monitor Progress--The Most Solvable Problem in Special Education

  • Fewer Goals and ShorterIEPs
  • Shorter IEP Meetings
  • Better Communication and Understanding w Parents
  • Greater Awareness of What is Expected by Students
  • More Frequent Progress Monitoring
  • More Changes in Intervention When Progress is Less Than Expected
  • Greater Student Achievement
the problem
The Problem?
  • Unfortunately, the IEP process operates poorly in many places (e.g., McDonnell et al., l997). For years, IEPs have been based on a mastery measurement framework, which creates
  • lengthy,
  • unmanageable documents, and
  • onerous paper work.
  • These mastery measurement IEPs, with their long lists of short-term objectives, also fail to provide a basis for quantifying outcomes.
  • For these reasons and more, IEPs promote, at best, procedural compliance without accounting for individual student learning or describing special education effectiveness.
  • Lynn S. Fuchs and Douglas Fuchs, Vanderbilt University
  • Testimony to the President’s Commission on
  • Excellence in Special Education,
  • Progress Monitoring, Accountability, and LD Identification
  • April 18, 2002
slide44

Using SLA to Prioritize How Can Can Be Managed: Can We Provide Interventions to Allow Student to Benefit from General Education?

slide46

First Things First: Provide Interventions Matched to Students’ Needs

Effective TIER 3 Evidence-Based Programs For Those That Need Them

~5%

~15%

Corrective Reading (SRA)

Language! (Sopris West)

Wilson Reading System Reading Mastery

Great Leaps/ Read Naturally (Fluency)

REWARDS (Fluency, Comprehension and Vocabulary in Plus Program)

Soar to Success (Comprehension)

~80% of Students

slide47

The Middle School Solution

EFFECTIVE TIER 2 Programs Using Evidence-Based Programs

Reading Mastery (SRA)

Early Reading Intervention (Scott Foresman)

Great Leaps (Diamuid, Inc.)

REWARDS (Sopris West)

Read Naturally

Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS)

~5%

~15%

~80% of Students

slide53

The Path to Building A Problem-Solving Model, Including RTI is Clear

Build Powerful

Tier 2 Remedial Programs for “Prevention”

slide54

http://www.corelearn.com/PDFS/Briefing%20Papers/CORE%20Briefing%20Paper%20Secondary%20Reading.pdfhttp://www.corelearn.com/PDFS/Briefing%20Papers/CORE%20Briefing%20Paper%20Secondary%20Reading.pdf

what does that look like for secondary
What Does That Look Like For Secondary?

1. Scheduled REMEDIAL Program

2. Implement Science-Based Program

3. Ensure Teaching is Explicit & Active + Ample Practice

4. Regular Science-Based Progress Monitoring (CBM)

5. Formative Evaluation for Immediate Modifications

slide58

The Path to Building A Problem-Solving Model, Including RTI is Clear

Expand the Power of General Education Teachers to Meet the Diverse Needs of Students

slide59

The Middle School and

High School Solution:

Building Continuously Improving Tier 1 General Education Instruction

~5%

~15%

Use of Teaching Routines and Learning Strategies (Kansas)

Well-Designed Curriculum with a “Big Ideas” Focus or Ability to “Distill” Curriculum to Big Ideas

Effective Secondary Classroom Management

Study and Organizational Skills

Curriculum Modification

~80% of Students

assessing a school s current capacity
Assessing A School’s Current Capacity
  • Secondary Special Education Staff and/or Related Services that are Competent in Strategic Instruction Model (SIM) and Behavior Support
  • Evidence of Secondary Staff Development Targeted Toward “Things That Work” to Support Diverse Learners
  • Syllabi That Reflect These “Things That Work”
  • Support Services That are “Released” to Support Diverse Learners in Content Area Classes
websites for scientifically based behavior support
Websites for Scientifically Based Behavior Support
  • National Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS): www.pbis.org
  • Safe and Civil Schools: www.safeandcivilschools.com
components of well designed syllabi
Components of Well-Designed Syllabi
  • Contact Information
  • Course Goals and Big Ideas
  • Instructions and Directions as to How to Get Help
  • Course Materials
  • Behavior Expectations and Consequences
  • Detailed Information About the Grading System
  • Course Calendar and Due Dates
  • Self Monitoring Checklists
  • Access to Models for Papers, Projects, Tests
well designed curriculum with a big ideas focus
Well-Designed Curriculum with a Big Ideas Focus
  • Carnine, D. (1994). Introduction to the Mini-Series: Educational Tools for Diverse Learners. School Psychology Review, 23, 341-350.
  • Carnine, D., Jones, E.D., & Dixon, R.C. (1994). Mathematics: Educational Tools for Diverse Learners. School Psychology Review, 23, 406-427.
  • Carnine, D., Miller, S., Bean, R. & Zigmond, N., (1994). Social Studies: Educational Tools for Diverse Learners. School Psychology Review, 23, 428-441.
  • Grossen, B., Romance, N.K., & Vitale, M.R., (1994). Science: Educational Tools for Diverse Learners. School Psychology Review, 23, 442-463.
slide72

Not Everything We Teach Is Equally Important“The sheer quantity of information requires us to constantly determine what to include in a course”Keith Lenz, 2003

http://www.ku-crl.org/archives/classroom/smarter.html

slide76

The Path to Building A Problem-Solving Model, Including RTI is Clear

When Students Need Content Area Support--As Part of RTI or as Their Special Education Program, Build the Capacity to Manage Mainstream Consultation Agreements

slide77
For Students WITHOUT Basic Skill Problems as Part of RTI or Who Those Who Need Special EducationMainstream Consultation Agreements
what is a mainstream consultation agreement
What is a Mainstream Consultation Agreement?
  • A SYSTEMATIC WAY of Providing Support for Learning in Content Area Classrooms
  • A SYSTEMATIC WAY of Providing Support to General Education Content Area Teachers
sample references on mcas
Sample References on MCAs
  • Tindal, G., & Germann, G. (1991). Mainstream consultation agreements in secondary schools. In G. Stoner, M.R. Shinn, and H.M. Walker (Eds.). Interventions for achievement and behavior problems (pp. 495-518). Bethesda,MD: NASP.
  • Tindal, G., Shinn, M.R., Walz, L., & Germann, G. Mainstream consultation in secondary settings: An evaluation of the Pine County model. Journal of Special Education, 21, 94-106.
mcas provide a plan for support who does what
MCAs Provide a Plan for Support:Who Does What
  • In American History
    • Instruction
      • GE Teacher will work w SE teacher to develop weekly study guides
      • SE Teacher will manage history peer tutoring during study hall
    • Evaluation
      • SE Teacher will write and administer weekly quizzes with GE support
mcas detail student responsibilities
MCAs Detail Student Responsibilities
  • Student Will:
  • Be in class on time.
  • Bring book, notebook, and materials to class.
  • Take daily notes.
  • Ask at least 1 instructional question or provide 1 instructional comment per period during discussion.
mcas detail parent responsibilities
MCAs Detail Parent Responsibilities
  • Parent Will:
  • Set up and maintain a homework space and time.
  • Check daily assignment calendar and sign off.
  • Communicate with SE teacher in writing or by telephone weekly.
evaluation is specified in the contract in points
Evaluation is Specified in the Contract in Points
  • Class attendance 5 points
  • Daily Note Taking 5 points
  • Weekly quizzes 15 points
  • Positive class behavior 15 points
  • Complete daily
  • Assignment calendar 3 points
  • Complete daily
  • Homework 5 points
points are tallied for quarter
Points are Tallied for Quarter
  • 180 points per week
  • 10-week term
  • 1800 points possible
  • 70% of 1800 for a C = 1260 points
  • 60% of 1800 for a C = 1080 points
  • A’s or B’s require meeting the standard course requirements with minor modifications only.
evaluation and program modification
Evaluation and Program Modification
  • Evaluation in Week 1 includes how well all parties are understanding and implementing the MCA--Key is Logistics/Loopholes
  • Subsequent Evaluation emphasizes comparing EXPECTED # of points w ACTUAL # of points earned
  • Contract is Modified when there is a discrepancy (usually for 2 weeks)
facilitating change at the secondary level
Facilitating Change at the Secondary Level
  • Deal with HEAD Issues and Killer Phrases
  • Establish the WILL
  • Be Sensitive to a Beleaguered General Education Community and “Code”
get the skills
Get the Skills
  • Effective, Efficient Functional Assessment Like CBM
  • Writing and Implementing MCAs
  • Effective Classroom Management
  • Study Skills
  • Curriculum Modification with a Big Ideas Focus
  • Learning Strategies
  • Writing and Implementing MCAs
get the time
Get the Time
  • You Can’t Provide Support to GE Teachers if You’re Only Providing Direct Service (or Testing for Eligibility)
  • You Get Time by…
    • - More Clearly Defining Who You Provide Direct Service To
    • - Gaining Administrative Support from SE Directors and Principals
  • But Don’t Hinge Change on Administrative Support Alone or At the Beginning
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