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Astronomy C12, Earth & Planetary Science C12, Letters & Science C70 The Planets. Prof. Geoff Marcy Prof. Michael Manga. Saturn’s Moon, Dione Saturn & Ring. Tu, Th 11-12:30 am LeConte 4. Professors Michael Manga 177 McCone Hall manga@seismo.berkeley.edu

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Astronomy C12, Earth & Planetary Science C12, Letters & Science C70

The Planets

Prof. Geoff Marcy

Prof. Michael Manga

Saturn’s Moon,

Dione

Saturn & Ring

Tu, Th 11-12:30 am

LeConte 4


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Professors

Michael Manga 177 McCone Hall manga@seismo.berkeley.edu

(office hours MWF 11:15-12:00)

Geoff Marcy 417 Campbell Hall gmarcy@berkeley.edu

(office hours T,Th, 1pm)

Departments of Earth & Planetary Science and Astronomy

GSIs:

Gilead Wurman gwurman@seismo.berkeley.edu

Alyssa Sarid alyssa@eps.berkeley.edu

Shuleen Martinsmartin@astron.berkeley.edu

Jim Watkins jwatkins@berkeley.edu

8 Discussion Sections 1 hr each(Start Next Week)

Review, Clarification, Homework Help

Sign up for Section on Telebears


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Text:

The Cosmic Perspective

Bennett et al. (2008) 5th Edition

(Also: Used 4th Edition)

  • Web Site on bspace:http://bspace.berkeley.edu

    • Syllabus, Schedule & Lecture Figures

    • Assignments: Reading, Homework, Observing Project

    • Class Information


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Homework: 50% of your grade

12 assignments during semester

Most questions from your text

The Astronomy Learning Center (TALC):

264 Evans Time: Wed @ 6pm

First homework set available Friday

Due by Friday Feb 1

Turn in HW every Friday at noon:

Box labeled Astro/EPS 12 in the basement of Campbell Hall.


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Homework:

You are encouraged to work together, but MUST turn in your own work, in your own words

The graders can recognize copying, and answers found with Google

Refer to the Berkeley Code of Student conduct if you are unclear about what constitutes cheating or plagiarism


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Announcements

  • No discussion sections this week

  • Read Ch 1 of the text this week; Ch 2 by next

  • First Homework Assignment: posted Friday.


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Last Time ::

The Solar System


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The Solar System

Inner Solar System

Outer Solar System


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Overview

Our place in the Universe

13 billion

Light Years


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The Solar System:Sun and 8 PlanetsMoons, Asteroids, Comets, and Dust


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Milky Way Galaxy

200 Billion Stars

Photo taken from Earth

You Are Here


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Our Sun moves relative to the other stars in the local Solar neighborhood.

Our Sun and the stars orbit around the center of the Milky Way Galaxy every 230 million years.


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Spiral Galaxies


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Elliptical Galaxies


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Irregular Galaxies


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The ``Local Group”

of Galaxies

100,000 Light Years

The Galactic Neighborhood


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The ``Local Group’’of Galaxies


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And outward…

10 Million Light Years


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The Universe:

All matter and energy

> 100 Billion Galaxies


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Exponential notation is handy:

10N x 10M = 10(N+M)

Astronomical Numbers

Best to use Exponential Notation

103 = 1000 Thousand

106 = 1,000,000 Million

109 = 1,000,000,000 Billion

Also:

10–3 = 1/1000

= 0.001

Example:

103 x 106 = 109

thousand million billion


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How many stars in our visible Universe?

106 (1 million)

1012 (1 million million

1018 (1 billion billion)

1022

infinite


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The National Debt is

$7.6 Trillion

Federal Debt

= $7.6 x 1012

U.S. Population = 300 x 106

Calculate Your Debt:

$7.6 x 1012 / 3 x 108 =

$2.5 x 104

Trillions of Dollars

$25,000 per person

02 03 04 05

Debt Total


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Distance, time and number :

Radius of our Galaxy:

6,000,000,000,000,000,000 m =

Radius of a Hydrogen atom:

0.00000000005 m =

Time for one vibration of an oxygen molecule, O2:

0.00000000000001 s =

Age of the Universe:

470,000,000,000,000,000 s =

Scientific notation:

6 x 1018 m

0.5 x 10–10 m

1 x 10–14 s

4.7 x 1017 s = 14 billion years


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  • SI (Systeme International) Units

  • Base units: 1 meter (m) length~ 3.3 ft

  • 1 kilogram (kg) mass~ 2.2 lb

  • 1 second (s) time

    • MKS System of units and measure


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  • SI (Systeme International) Units

  • Base units: 1 meter (m) length

  • 1 kilogram (kg) mass

  • 1 second (s) time

    • MKS System of units and measure

      Sometimes easier to derive other units from these:

      km, g, ms, µs, … km = 103 m kilo

      g = 10-3 kgkilo

      ms = 10-3 smilli

      µs = 10-6 smicro


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$Billion error

UNITS ARE IMPORTANT!!!

Mars Climate Orbiter: Launch: 11 Dec. 1998

Orbit insertion: 23 Sep. 1999

Followed by: Loss of Communication

WHY?

Failed to convert from English units (inches, feet, pounds) to Metric units (MKS)


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Light takes time to travel:

3 x 108 m/sec

= 3 x 105 km/sec

= 0.3 m/ns (1 ns = 10-9 s)

Light Year = 9 trillion km = 6 trillion miles

Light Hour

Light Minutes are unit of Distance:

How far Light Travels in that interval of time

1 light second = 3 x 105 km

1 light ns = 30 cm ≈ 1 foot


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NASA/JPL/Cornell

Driving the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER)

  • How long does it take to communicate with the rovers?


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How long does it take for radio waves (light) to reach Mars?

  • Less than 1 second

  • 10 seconds

  • 5 minutes

  • 1 day

  • 1 year


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Powers of Ten“Cosmic Voyage”The Movie


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How to deal with very large & small numbers

  • Develop a useful arithmetic

    • Exponential notation; convert between units

  • Visualize using a sequence of images (movie)

    • Use different sequences

  • Visualize by way of a scale model

    • Try different models


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    A Scaled Model of the Solar System

    10 Billion x Smaller

    Sun’s diameter: 14 x 1010 cm (~ 106 miles)

    Scale 1010: 14 cm

    Earth diameter: 1.3 x 104 km 0.13 cm

    Jupiter’s diameter: 150,000 km 1.5 cm

    Earth’s distance from Sun: 1 “Astronomical Unit” = 1 “AU”

    = 1.5 x 108 km

    1010

    Scaled Down

    “Sun”

    14cm

    1 AU ?? cm

    0.15 cm

    1.5 cm

    15 cm

    150 cm

    1500 cm

    Ans: 1500 cm = 15 meters


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    How large is the Solar System?

    • Let’s view it to scale

      • say the Sun is the size of a large grapefruit, 15 cm (6 inches)

        - then:


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    Planet dist (AU) Scaled dist (m) Where?

    Mercury 0.4 6 6 rows back

    Venus 0.7 10 10 rows

    Earth 1.0 15 15 rows

    Mars 1.5 22 22 rows

    Jupiter 5 75 3/4 football field away

    Saturn 10 150 1.5 football field away

    Uranus 20 300 Sproul Plaza

    Neptune 30 450 Bancroft Ave

    Pluto 50 750 Durant Ave

    Oort Cloud 50,000 5 x 105 Oakland


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    You Are Here:

    Earth’s Orbit

    Uranus

    o

    Saturn

    o

    Jupiter

    o

    .

    100 m

    Neptune

    o


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    How Far is the Nearest Star?

    Nearest Grapefruit:

    In Washington D.C.

    Alpha Centauri

    Grapefruit-sized

    Sun in Berkeley

    Scales to:

    4 x 106 m

    (~ 3000 mi)

    d = 4 light years

    = 4 x1016 m


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    How old is the Universe?

    • The Cosmic Calendar

      • if the entire age of the Universe were one calendar year

      • one month would be approximately 1 billion real years


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    Key Issues So Far:

    • What does our solar system look like when viewed to scale?

    • How far away are the stars?

    • How do human time scales compare to the age of the Universe?


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    • TODAY’S LECTURE

    • Solar System Resides within our Milky Way Galaxy

    • Ranges of distances and time are huge.

    • Exponential notation and models are a real Help!

    • Distance Units:

    • 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) = Earth - Sun Distance

    • = 93 million miles

    • = 150 million km


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    What is the origin of the Universe?

    • The two simplest atoms (H and He) were created during the Big Bang.

    • More complex atoms were created in stars.

    • When the star dies, chemical elements are expelled into space…. to form new stars and planets!

    Most of the atoms in our bodies were created in the core of a star!


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    The Universe in a Day

    Look at the entire history of the Universe as though it took place in a single day. The present is at the stroke of midnight at the end of that day. Since it is about 13.5 billion years old, each hour will be ~0.5 billion years. A million years takes only a little over 7 seconds.

    The Big Bang (a dense, hot explosion) and the formation of H and He all take place in the first nanosecond. The Universe becomes transparent in about 2 seconds. The first stars and galaxies appear after about 2am.

    Our Galaxy forms at 4am. Generations of stars are born and die.


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    The Universe in a Day

    The Solar System does not form until 3pm. The first life (bacterial) appears on the Earth by 4pm. Our atmosphere begins to have free oxygen at 7 or 8 pm, and this promotes the development of creatures which can move more aggressively and eat each other. Life does not begin to take on complex forms (multicellular) until 10:45pm. It moves onto land at 11:10. The dinosaurs appear at about 11:40, and become extinct at 11:52. Pre-human primates appear at around 14 seconds before midnight, and all of recorded history occurs in the last 70 milliseconds.

    Looking to the future, we can expect the Universe of stars to go on for at least another millennium (using the same time compression factor). After that, there are other ages of the Universe (not dominated by stars), which grow colder and more bizarre, and take place on astronomical timescales…


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    The Earth orbits around the Sun once every year!

    The Earth’s axis is tilted by 23.5º!


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    What is the Earth’s velocity about the Sun?

    Radius of Orbit (1 AU): 150 x 106 km

    Circumference: 2 π x radius

    Distance around the Sun that the Earth travels:

    2 π x (1.5 x 108 km) = 9 x 1011 m

    Earth orbits the Sun once a year:

    1 yr = 3 x 107 s

    Velocity = Distance/Time = 9 x 1011 m / 3 x 107 s

    = 3 x 104 m/s = 30 km/s

    110,000 km/hr or 75,000 miles/hr!


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    A Universe in motion

    • Contrary to our perception, we are not “sitting still.”

    • We are moving with the Earth.

      • and not just in one direction

    The Earth rotates around it’s axis once every day!


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    Looking back in time

    • Light, although fast, travels at a finite speed.

    • It takes:

      • 8 minutes to reach us from the Sun

      • 8 years to reach us from Sirius (8 light-years away)

      • 1,500 years to reach us from the Orion Nebula

    • The farther out we look into the Universe, the farther back in time we see!


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    The Milky Way moves with the expansion of the Universe!

    • Mostly all galaxies appear to be moving away from us.

    • The farther away they are, the faster they are moving.

      • Just like raisins in a raisin cake; they all move apart from each other as the dough (space itself) expands.


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    You Are Here:

    Earth’s Orbit

    Saturn

    o

    Uranus

    o

    Jupiter

    o

    .

    Neptune

    o

    100 m


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    How Far is the Nearest Star?

    Alpha Centauri

    d = 4 light years

    = 4 x1016 m

    Scales to:

    4 x 106 m

    (~ 3000 mi)

    Grapefruit-sized

    Sun in Berkeley

    Nearest Grapefruit:

    In Washington D.C.


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