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Ergonomics, Standards and Law. Standards and Metrics. Standardisation generally makes people’s lives safer and easier Standardisation benefits trade A key aspect of standardisation is Quality Assurance The main international organisations are

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PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Ergonomics' - elina


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Standards and Metrics

  • Standardisation generally makes people’s lives safer and easier

  • Standardisation benefits trade

  • A key aspect of standardisation is Quality Assurance

  • The main international organisations are

    • ISO (International Standards Organisation) covering mechanical aspects

    • IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) covering electrical aspects

  • Computing has a joint commission (JTC1)

  • Governments, professional bodies, companies also produce standards


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HCI Standards

  • HCI standards are important, but difficult to pin down because of the rich variability of human beings

  • ISO9241 addresses ergonomics’ requirements for work with VDU’s

    • Not legally binding

  • Council Directive from EC addresses minimum safety and health standards for work with visual display equipment

  • EC Directive is legally binding;

    • unless specifically legislated, standards are not

  • House style guides are designed to provide conformity to minimum standards across a family of products (e.g., MS User Interface Guidelines)

    • Usually enforceable only through management policy


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Ergonomics

  • Studies the manner in which the anatomical, physical and psychological needs of workers relate to their immediate working environment

  • Focuses on HCI and how it can be designed to achieve

    • worker satisfaction

      • often the last to be considered, if at all

    • worker safety

    • worker health

    • worker productivity


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Computer Hazards

  • Several areas known to have a direct effect on users’ health

    • RSI

    • CTS (Carpal Tunnel Syndrome)

      • both caused by repeated flexing of wrist while using fingers - damages the medial nerve

    • Lower back injuries


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EC Directive - Minimum Requirements

  • Equipment

    • Use of equipment must not be a source of risk to workers

  • Display Screen

    • Characters well-defined, clearly formed, adequate size and spacing between characters and lines

    • stable screen image, no flickering

    • adjustable brightness and contrast esp. to ambient conditions; no reflective glare

    • display unit must swivel and tilt easily

    • must be possible to use a separate base or adjustable table for the screen


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EC Directive - Minimum Requirements

  • Keyboard

    • tiltable, separate from screen

    • provide support for hands and arms of operator

    • matt surface to avoid reflective glare

    • arrangement and characteristics to facilitate use

    • key symbols shall be adequately contrasted and readable

  • Work desk or surface

    • sufficiently large, low-reflectance surface and allow flexible arrangement of screen, keyboard, documents and related equipment


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EC Directive - Minimum Requirements

  • Work Chair

    • stable; allowing freedom of movement and comfort

    • adjustable seat height

    • adjustable seat back (height and tilt)

    • footrests must be made available for optional use


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EC Directive- Minimum Requirements

  • Space requirements

    • workstation designed to allow user to change position and vary movement

  • Lighting Requirements

    • appropriate contrast between screen and background environment

    • glare minimised by co-ordinating workstation positions with artificial light sources

  • Reflections and Glare

    • artificial and natural light sources arranged to eliminate glare

    • windows fitted with adjustable coverings


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EC Directive - Minimum Requirements

  • Noise

    • noise emitted from workstations should not distract attention or disturb speech

  • Heat

    • equipment must not cause excess heat which discomforts workers

  • Radiation

    • reduced to negligible levels

  • Humidity

    • adequate level shall be established and maintained


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EC Directive - Minimum Requirements

  • Operator/Computer Interface

    • software must be suitable for the task

    • software must be easy to use and, where appropriate, adaptable to the user’s level of knowledge or experience; no quantitative or qualitative checking facility may be used without knowledge of workers

    • systems must provide feedback to workers on their performance

    • systems must display information in a format and at a pace which are adapted to operators

    • The principles of software ergonomics must be applied, in particular to human data processing


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Health and Safety (Display Screen) Equipment Regulations 1992

  • “software must be suitable for the task”

  • “software must be easy to use”

  • “systems must display information in a format and at a pace which are adapted to users”

  • “the principles of software ergonomics must be applied”


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