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Electrical Engineering Basics Around the Home. UEET 101. Presented by Donald S. Zinger. Electricity Everywhere. Entertainment Communication Industry Lights Anything dealing with electron flow Electrical engineers involved in all. Brainstorm.

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Electrical engineering basics around the home l.jpg

Electrical EngineeringBasics Around the Home

UEET 101

Presented by

Donald S. Zinger


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Electricity Everywhere

  • Entertainment

  • Communication

  • Industry

  • Lights

  • Anything dealing with electron flow

  • Electrical engineers involved in all


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Brainstorm

  • List activities an electrical engineer might perform


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Electrical Engineering Major Areas

  • Signal and Systems

    • Communications

    • Controls

  • Digital

    • Computers

    • Logic Systems

  • Power

    • Generation and distribution

    • Power conversion


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Areas Not Distinct

Signal and System

Digital

Power


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Household Appliances Contain All Areas

  • Look at dissected product

  • Coffee maker


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Coffee MakerBottom Panel Removed


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Coffee MakerElectronic Module Removed


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All Related to Electricity

  • A fundamental property of matter, associated with atomic particles whose movements , free or controlled, lead to the development of fields of force and the generation of kinetic or potential energy.

    • Funk and Wagnall New International Dictionary of the English Language, Ferguson Publishing Company, Chicago, 1997, pp. 406


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Quantifying Electricity

  • Current

    • Flow of positive electrical charge

    • Measured in Amperes

  • Voltage

    • “Pressure” that causes current to flow

    • Measured in volts

  • Impedance

    • Circuit opposition to current flow

    • Resistance in many circuits

    • Measured in ohms (W)


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Basic Electrical Quantity Relationships

  • Current flow is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the impedance.

  • Ohm’s Law


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AC vs. D C

  • AC – alternating current

    • Continuously varying in time

  • DC – direct current

    • Constant in long term (steady state)


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AC Measurements

  • Zero average value

  • Use RMS to measure values

    • RMS – Root Mean Square


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Electrical Power

  • Power calculation needed for useful work

  • Instantaneous power

  • Average power

Where pf = power factor


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Energy Calculation

  • Energy calculation relates to work done

  • Energy is power used over time

  • Equation for constant power


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Comparison of Energy Users

Data from: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/elect.html


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Single Residence Energy Use Calculation

  • Sum last digits of your groups ZIDs

  • Use last digit of sum to choose appliance

  • Estimate hours of use in a year

  • Estimate total energy


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US Average Residential Energy Used

  • Total residential electrical energy use 2005 = 1,201,147,845 kWh

    Source: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/elect.html

  • Number of households 2001 = 107 Million

    Source: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/reps/appli/us_table.html

  • Energy per household = 11.2 MWh


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Appliance Design

  • Find a consumer need

  • Determine technical specifications

  • Develop system and components

  • Evaluate design

  • Repeat as necessary


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Example:Electric Glove

  • Developing an electrically heated glove

  • Uses resistive heat

  • Nominal heat 1 W

  • Not to exceed 2 W

  • Should last 2 hours.


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Battery Choices

From: http://www.duracell.com/oem/Pdf/others/alkaline.pdf


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Discharge Curves

From: http://www.duracell.com/oem/primary/alkaline/alkaline_manganese_data.asp

D Cell

C Cell

AAA Cell

AA Cell


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+

+

Batteries in Series

  • Voltages add

  • Total energy increases

Pictorial

Schematic


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+

+

Batteries in Parallel

  • Current capability adds

  • Total energy increases

  • Current sharing problems

Pictorial

Schematic


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Challenge: Choose Resistance and Battery

  • Light weight

  • Meets original specifications


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