development of 3 d simulation for power transmitting analysis of cvt driven by dry hybrid v belt
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Development of 3-D simulation for power transmitting analysis of CVT driven by dry hybrid V-belt. International Continuously Variable and Hybrid Transmission Congress September 23-25, 2004 San Francisco, CA. Masahide FUJITA Hisayasu MURAKAMI

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development of 3 d simulation for power transmitting analysis of cvt driven by dry hybrid v belt

Development of 3-D simulation for power transmitting analysis of CVT driven by dry hybrid V-belt

International Continuously Variableand Hybrid Transmission Congress

September 23-25, 2004

San Francisco, CA

Masahide FUJITA Hisayasu MURAKAMI

Power Train Research and Development DivisionDaihatsu Motor CO., LTD.

Shigeki OKUNO Mitsuhiko TAKAHASHI

Power Transmission Technical Research Center

Bando Chemical Industries, LTD

contents
Contents
  • Background
  • New CVT
  • 3D-simulation
  • Outcomes
    • Transmitting efficiency
    • Dynamic strain on the belt
  • Conclusions
background
Main products of Daihatsu: Small-sized CarsBackground

Application

New CVT

Commercialized CVT

Metal pushing V-belt

Excessive quality

Dry hybrid V-belt

1L2L

Higher efficiency

Engine displacement

new cvt with dry hybrid v belt
New CVT with Dry Hybrid V-belt

Advantage:

Air cooling

No lubricant

=Higher efficiency

High torque capacity with improved wider belt

=Increased belt mass / inertia

Tension bands

Blocks (Resin coated aluminum alloy)

Aramid cord

Rubber

new cvt system
Merit

Increase contact angle

Torque capacity rise

Belt tension control

Better efficiency

New CVT system
  • Demerit
    • Reverse bending force
      • Less durability

Tension Pulley

Driven Pulley

Driving Pulley

3 d dynamic simulation
3-D dynamic simulation

Belt movement in high speed:

Dynamic measurementsisimpossible

3-D dynamic FEA is needed

Driven Pulley

Driving Pulley

3800rpm

30m/s

selection of fem code
Required features:

Precise inertia force calculation

Advanced contact search

Dynamic belt behavior visualization (stress & others)

Explicit FEM code

ESI Software\'s PAM-MEDYSA(MEchanical DYnamic Stress Analysis)

Selection of FEM code
modeling of dry hybrid v belt
Building the model as it is

Cord anisotropy

Contacts defined between block & tension band

Modeling of dry hybrid V-belt

Block

Resin

Rubber

Upperbeam

Tension band

Lowerbeam

Cord

Aluminum

modeling of cvt pulleys
All parts: Defined aselastic

Components of pulley shaft

Sliding interface taking account of shaft clearance

Modeling of CVT pulleys

Fixed pulley

Movable pulley

Slide keys

Fixed pulley shaft

w/ clearance

Resin bush

calculation procedures
Initial state (Belt: Tension free)

Move driving pulley (apply tension to the belt)

Rotate driving pulleyApply absorbing torque

Calculation procedures

Driving pulley

Driven pulley

outcome on initial model
Outcome on initial model

Transmitting efficiency

At high speed running: lower efficiency

Difference (simulation/experiment): 2%

100

99

98

Efficiency(%)

97

96

95

94

0

10

20

30

40

Belt velocity (m/s)

Ratio: High (0.407) Input torque: 80Nm

Calculated

Measured

All Parts:elastic

2%

outcome from improved model
Matching of simulation with measurement

Solutions:

Take account offriction loss at pulley shaft

Increase friction loss between belt and pulleys

Outcome from improved model

Ratio: High (0.407) Input torque: 80Nm

Calculated

Movable

pulley

Measured

Slide keys

Fixed

pulley

Pulley shaft

w/ clearance

Resin bush

permanent deformation of tension band
Permanent deformation of tension band

From heat aging

Clearancebetween tension band and block

=

At final period of belt lifespan:

  • Decrease transmitting efficiency
  • Belt temperature rise
effect of permanent deformation
Effect of permanent deformation

power loss +18 %

1.45kw

1.72kw

Vehicle speed

60Km/h

with belt speed 30m/s

with belt speed 35m/s

Final period

of lifespan

Calculation result of clearance vs. transmitting efficiency

effect of permanent deformation16
At high speed range

Increase clearance

Decrease efficiency

Efficiency lowed within 1%

Power loss +18%

Belt temperature rise

Effect of permanent deformation
dynamic strain analysis
At the period of lifespan

Crack at lower sideof tension bands

Dynamic FEA

Calculate lower side strainat higher belt speed

Dynamic strain analysis

crack

strain peak at tension pulley
Strain peak at tension pulley

Period of contact with tension Pulley

Strain Peak in dynamic behavior

Ratio:High (0.407)Low (2.449)

Strain

Bending

Strain

0

Belt speed: 35m/s 9.7m/s

strain analysis at tension pulley
Strain analysis at tension pulley

Strain by dynamic behavior

proportional to Belt Speed squared

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

下コグ表面歪み(%)

5

4

3

2

1

0

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

ベルト速度(m/s)

Strain in dynamic behavior

calculated strain

Tension band strain(%)

Bending strain

S=0.00177*V2+7.96

Belt speed(m/s)

crack failure s n curve
Crack failure S-N curve

Belt temperature rise

Strain (%)

Belt speed increase

Number of cycles to crack

prediction of belt life
Based on S-N curve and calculated strain

Full agreement

Decrease velocitylonger belt life

Prediction of belt life

Belt temperature :130deg C

Experiment

Calculated

Experiment

Calculated

35m/s

30m/s

conclusions
Factors to affect transmitting efficiency:

Pulley shaft clearance

Permanent deformation of tension band

Friction loss = Lower efficiency at high belt speed

Raise belt temperature

Shorten belt life

Dynamic strain at high belt speed

Shorten belt life

Keys to success

Cooling system

Limit the maximum belt speed

Conclusions
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