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Current Status of Avian Influenza (H5N1) (Commonly referred to as the Bird Flu). Glen J. Arnold OSU Extension, Putnam County, Ottawa, Ohio; and Teresa Y. Morishita, DVM, PhD, Dipl. ACPV College of Veterinary Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, California.

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Current Status of Avian Influenza (H5N1)(Commonly referred to as the Bird Flu)

Glen J. Arnold

OSU Extension, Putnam County,

Ottawa, Ohio; and

Teresa Y. Morishita, DVM, PhD, Dipl. ACPV

College of Veterinary Medicine,

Western University of Health Sciences,

Pomona, California


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Avian Influenza

  • Influenza Type A

  • All subtypes can affect birds

  • Poultry disease

  • Waterfowl reservoirs


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Avian Influenza Subtypes

  • Name based on surface proteins

  • Hemagglutinin proteins

    • H5, H7 subtypes

  • Neuraminidase proteins

    • N1

AI


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Avian Influenza

  • Signs

    • Respiratory Tract

      • Sneezing

      • Excess Discharges

      • Swollen Sinuses

    • Digestive Tract

      • Diarrhea

    • Neurological System

      • Twisted heads

      • Uncoordinated gait


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Avian Influenza

  • Humans

    • Respiratory Tract

      • Flu-like

    • Digestive Tract

      • Diarrhea


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H5N1 Avian Influenza Timeline

  • 1996: H5N1 from goose in Guangdong Province

  • 1997: poultry farms and markets in Hong Kong; 6/18 human fatalities

  • 2/03: 1/2 human fatality; travel to Fujian Province; 1/1 suspect


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First Wave of H5N1 Influenza

  • Mid-03: H5N1 causes outbreaks, undetected and unreported

  • 12/03: Two tigers and two leopards die of H5N1 avian influenza. FIRST CASE IN BIG CATS


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First Wave of H5N1 Influenza

  • 12/03:Korea

  • 1/04: Vietnam, Japan, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos

  • 2/04: Indonesia, China

  • Human Cases:

  • 8/12 Thailand;16/23 Vietnam;

  • Cannot rule out limited human-to-human contact


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Second Wave of H5N1 Influenza

  • 6-7/04:China, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam

  • Possible role of wild birds

  • More lethal for mammals; fatal to waterfowl

  • 7/04: Japan is disease-free

  • 8/04: Malaysia; infections in pigs and cats; cat was previously considered resistant

  • 9/04: Korea is disease-free

  • 10/04: 147/441 tigers in Thailand; two eagles from Thailand imported into Brussels; domestic ducks as reservoirs

  • Human Cases

  • 4/5 Thailand; 4/4 Vietnam


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Third Wave of H5N1 Influenza

  • 12/04: Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam; possibly Cambodia and Laos

  • 1/05: Malaysia is disease-free

  • 4/05: 6,345 wild birds in central China

  • 6/05: China’s Xinjiang region

  • 7/05: 4/05 outbreak from new variant; virus transmitted among geese and may spread via migratory routes; civets infected; Russian poultry and wild birds

  • 8/05: Kazakhstan poultry and wild birds; Tibet; Mongolia

  • 10/05: Turkey; Romania; songbirds from China smuggled into Taiwan; imported parrot in United Kingdom; China’s Anhui and Hunan Province; Croatia wild birds; Macedonia

  • Human Cases

  • human-to-human transmission

  • 21/64 Vietnam; 4/4 Cambodia; Thailand and Indonesia


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Third Wave of H5N1 Influenza

  • 11/05: Chinese poultry

  • 12/05: Ukraine; Kuwait flamingo (first in Gulf Region)

  • 1/06: Human cases in Turkey and Iraq


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The Wave Continues

  • 2-3/06: Iraq; poultry in Nigeria (first in Africa); wild birds (swans) in Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Slovenia, Iran, Austria, Germany; poultry and zoo birds in Eqypt; poultry in India; France; wild birds in Denmark and Spain, UK


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Patterns

  • Spreading over land mass

  • Need for expedient diagnosis

  • Poultry involved

  • Wild birds and migration routes


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Areas of Concerns

  • Migratory Birds

    • reservoirs

    • overlap of summer breeding areas


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Areas of Concerns

  • Illegal Commerce

    • songbirds

    • fighting chickens

    • raw and undercooked products

"This is an old Polish recipe that was used at Easter time. This recipe is traditionally served with home made noodles. If desired the fruit can be removed, leaving broth to serve with noodle. If you do not know where to purchase a duck, contact a local farmer or butcher. If you prepare your own poultry be sure to add 1/2 cup vinegar to duck blood to prevent coagulation."  Original recipe yield: 12 servings.


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Areas of Concerns

  • Commerce

    • live bird markets

    • transport of birds, mammals?


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Stopping a World Pandemic

  • Human-to-Human Transmission

  • Education

  • Expedient Diagnosis, Isolation, Quarantine


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