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Current Status of Avian Influenza (H5N1) (Commonly referred to as the Bird Flu). Glen J. Arnold OSU Extension, Putnam County, Ottawa, Ohio; and Teresa Y. Morishita, DVM, PhD, Dipl. ACPV College of Veterinary Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, California.

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current status of avian influenza h5n1 commonly referred to as the bird flu

Current Status of Avian Influenza (H5N1)(Commonly referred to as the Bird Flu)

Glen J. Arnold

OSU Extension, Putnam County,

Ottawa, Ohio; and

Teresa Y. Morishita, DVM, PhD, Dipl. ACPV

College of Veterinary Medicine,

Western University of Health Sciences,

Pomona, California

avian influenza
Avian Influenza
  • Influenza Type A
  • All subtypes can affect birds
  • Poultry disease
  • Waterfowl reservoirs
avian influenza subtypes
Avian Influenza Subtypes
  • Name based on surface proteins
  • Hemagglutinin proteins
    • H5, H7 subtypes
  • Neuraminidase proteins
    • N1

AI

avian influenza4
Avian Influenza
  • Signs
    • Respiratory Tract
      • Sneezing
      • Excess Discharges
      • Swollen Sinuses
    • Digestive Tract
      • Diarrhea
    • Neurological System
      • Twisted heads
      • Uncoordinated gait
avian influenza5
Avian Influenza
  • Humans
    • Respiratory Tract
      • Flu-like
    • Digestive Tract
      • Diarrhea
h5n1 avian influenza timeline
H5N1 Avian Influenza Timeline
  • 1996: H5N1 from goose in Guangdong Province
  • 1997: poultry farms and markets in Hong Kong; 6/18 human fatalities
  • 2/03: 1/2 human fatality; travel to Fujian Province; 1/1 suspect
first wave of h5n1 influenza
First Wave of H5N1 Influenza
  • Mid-03: H5N1 causes outbreaks, undetected and unreported
  • 12/03: Two tigers and two leopards die of H5N1 avian influenza. FIRST CASE IN BIG CATS
first wave of h5n1 influenza8
First Wave of H5N1 Influenza
  • 12/03:Korea
  • 1/04: Vietnam, Japan, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos
  • 2/04: Indonesia, China
  • Human Cases:
  • 8/12 Thailand;16/23 Vietnam;
  • Cannot rule out limited human-to-human contact
second wave of h5n1 influenza
Second Wave of H5N1 Influenza
  • 6-7/04:China, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam
  • Possible role of wild birds
  • More lethal for mammals; fatal to waterfowl
  • 7/04: Japan is disease-free
  • 8/04: Malaysia; infections in pigs and cats; cat was previously considered resistant
  • 9/04: Korea is disease-free
  • 10/04: 147/441 tigers in Thailand; two eagles from Thailand imported into Brussels; domestic ducks as reservoirs
  • Human Cases
  • 4/5 Thailand; 4/4 Vietnam
third wave of h5n1 influenza
Third Wave of H5N1 Influenza
  • 12/04: Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam; possibly Cambodia and Laos
  • 1/05: Malaysia is disease-free
  • 4/05: 6,345 wild birds in central China
  • 6/05: China’s Xinjiang region
  • 7/05: 4/05 outbreak from new variant; virus transmitted among geese and may spread via migratory routes; civets infected; Russian poultry and wild birds
  • 8/05: Kazakhstan poultry and wild birds; Tibet; Mongolia
  • 10/05: Turkey; Romania; songbirds from China smuggled into Taiwan; imported parrot in United Kingdom; China’s Anhui and Hunan Province; Croatia wild birds; Macedonia
  • Human Cases
  • human-to-human transmission
  • 21/64 Vietnam; 4/4 Cambodia; Thailand and Indonesia
third wave of h5n1 influenza11
Third Wave of H5N1 Influenza
  • 11/05: Chinese poultry
  • 12/05: Ukraine; Kuwait flamingo (first in Gulf Region)
  • 1/06: Human cases in Turkey and Iraq
the wave continues
The Wave Continues
  • 2-3/06: Iraq; poultry in Nigeria (first in Africa); wild birds (swans) in Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Slovenia, Iran, Austria, Germany; poultry and zoo birds in Eqypt; poultry in India; France; wild birds in Denmark and Spain, UK
patterns
Patterns
  • Spreading over land mass
  • Need for expedient diagnosis
  • Poultry involved
  • Wild birds and migration routes
areas of concerns
Areas of Concerns
  • Migratory Birds
    • reservoirs
    • overlap of summer breeding areas
areas of concerns15
Areas of Concerns
  • Illegal Commerce
      • songbirds
      • fighting chickens
      • raw and undercooked products

"This is an old Polish recipe that was used at Easter time. This recipe is traditionally served with home made noodles. If desired the fruit can be removed, leaving broth to serve with noodle. If you do not know where to purchase a duck, contact a local farmer or butcher. If you prepare your own poultry be sure to add 1/2 cup vinegar to duck blood to prevent coagulation."  Original recipe yield: 12 servings.

areas of concerns16
Areas of Concerns
  • Commerce
      • live bird markets
      • transport of birds, mammals?
stopping a world pandemic
Stopping a World Pandemic
  • Human-to-Human Transmission
  • Education
  • Expedient Diagnosis, Isolation, Quarantine
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