Construction of the 1 st Phase of Spent Fuel Repository in Finland: Lessons Learned and Success Factors - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Construction of the 1 st Phase of Spent Fuel Repository in Finland: Lessons Learned and Success Factors. T. Varjoranta, R. Paltemaa STUK, Finland. Nuclear Finland. Olkiluoto NPP (TVO)

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Construction of the 1 st Phase of Spent Fuel Repository in Finland: Lessons Learned and Success Factors

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Construction of the 1st Phase of Spent Fuel Repository in Finland: Lessons Learned and Success Factors

T. Varjoranta, R. Paltemaa

STUK, Finland


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Nuclear Finland

  • Olkiluoto NPP (TVO)

  • 2 operating units - ABB BWRs 860MWe (-78, -80), AFR storage, LILW repository, SNF Repository site with “Onkalo” under construction

  • New EPR under construction

  • Government accepted a new NPP license application

  • Loviisa NPP (Fortum)

  • 2 operating units - VVERs 488MWe (-77, -81) AFR storage, LILW repository

  • Fennovoima Ltd

  • Government accepted a new NPP license application

Tero Varjoranta


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Tero Varjoranta


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Status after 30 years´ work

Tero Varjoranta


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Main principles used when developing regulations and implementation

  • Finnish Parliament: We must take care of our nuclear waste

  • We must not leave nuclear waste as a burden to future generations

  • Use of today’s proven and robust technology and defence-in-depth principles

  • Being transparent, open and competent, international cooperation, but able to manage our nuclear waste without foreign support

  • Passively safe repository system, natural and technical barriers, no reliance on long-term surveillance

  • Retrievable, but safe and protective

  • No unjustified delays in the implementation process

  • Long time frames manageable in old and stable Finnish bedrock

  • Joint Convention and IAEA’s safety standards

Tero Varjoranta


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Success factor 1: Long term political commitment to resolve the nuclear waste issue

  • Governments’ strategic Decisions since 1983

  • Only safe can be built, safety can not be compromised by other requirements or demands

  • Three step licensing

    • Decision-in-Principle: Public and political acceptance, local veto-right

    • Construction license and Operating license: Safety technical issues

Tero Varjoranta


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Lessons learned and success factors

Success factor 2: National strategy and discipline

  • Major milestones and timelines set in Governments’ decisions

  • Over the years, regular regulatory reviews

    • Nuclear power companies invest sufficient resources to meet the Governments’ decisions

    • Site selection, characterization and confirmation, technologies, safety assessments and safety case

      Success factor 3: Well defined liabilities and roles

  • 3 step licensing process (decision in principle, construction license and operating license)

  • Responsibility of the waste producer, “Polluter pays”

  • Licensing: Local municipality - Government - Parliament

  • Regulatory control: STUK for safety, security and safeguards

  • Technical support organizations

Tero Varjoranta


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Lessons learned and success factors

Success factor 4: Early on established funding system

  • Detailed regulations specifies the financing system and the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund

  • The “polluter pays” principal, which includes all costs (also R&D and regulatory costs)

  • Generators of nuclear waste are annually obliged to present justified estimates of the future cost of managing their existing waste including spent fuel disposal and decommissioning of NPPs

  • The Ministry of Employment and the Economy confirms the assessed liability and the proportion of liability to be paid into the Nuclear Waste Management Fund (fund target)

  • The waste generators pay annually the difference of fund target and the amount already existing in the Fund

  • The current estimates: about 1900 million Euros with no discounting

Tero Varjoranta


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Lessons learned and success factors

Success factor 5: Regarding hosting the repository, veto-right for the local community in the 1st step of the licensing process

  • The Nuclear Energy Law states “Before making the decision-in-principle, the Government shall ascertain that the municipality where the nuclear facility is planned to be located in its statement is in favour of the facility”

  • Local municipality has been able to study and review all aspects (financial, socio-political, technological, safety etc.) without risk that Government, or even Parliament, is able to force the municipality to host the repository against their will

Tero Varjoranta


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Lessons learned and success factors

Success factor 6: Regulator’s strategic planning to allow development of regulatory approach parallel with R&D and in analogy with nuclear plant safety regulations

Tero Varjoranta


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Lessons learned and success factors

(Success factor 6, cont) The radiation protection criteria:

  • Operational period (about 150 years): dose-based criteria

    • practically no releases from normal operation

    • 0,1 mSv/a for anticipated transients

    • 1 mSv/a for postulated accidents with probability > 10-3/a

    • 5 mSv/a for postulated accidents with probability < 10-3/a.

  • Reasonably predictable future (from closure of the repository several thousands of years): dosed-based criteria to members of hypothetical critical groups due to “early failure” scenarios

    • Highest individual doses from expected evolution scenarios < 0,1 mSv/a

    • Insignificant average doses to larger population groups

  • Era of extreme climate changes (hundreds of thousand of years): Radiation protection criteria are based on release rates of radionuclides from the geosphere (geo-bio flux constraints).

    • Maximum impacts must be comparable to those arising from natural radionuclides, and large-scale impacts must be insignificant.

  • Farthest future (million years and beyond): demonstration of safety can be based on simplified bounding analyses, comparisons with natural analogues, and observations of the geological history of the site

    • The hazard posed by the repository is comparable to that from a uranium ore deposit. No rigorous quantitative safety assessments are required.

Tero Varjoranta


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Lessons learned and success factors

Success factor 7: Well structured, stepwise, open and defendable implementation program using graded approach and “rolling documents” strategy

Tero Varjoranta


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Lessons learned and success factors

Example of the strategy of ”rolling documents”

Tero Varjoranta


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Lessons learned and success factors

Success factor 8: Good safety culture and importance of dialogue between the regulator and the implementer based on comparable levels of technical competence

Success factor 9: Transparency and engagement of public and domestic and international scientific and technical communities

  • Public:

    • Focus on local level

    • Based on the needs of the local public and decision makers

  • Scientific and technical communities

    • Open and transparent programme

    • Peer Reviews

    • Foreign expert groups (policy and strategy, site, technologies, safety assessment)

Tero Varjoranta


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What happens next in licensing?

  • 2000/2001 Decision in Principle: the Finnish Society accepted the Olkiluoto Repository

  • 2.-6.11.2009 “EU-27 Peer Review to STUK”

  • 2012 Construction License submittal

    • Authorization to construct deposition tunnels, deposition holes and other underground facilities

    • Authorization to construct encapsulation plant& EBS components

    • No nuclear waste to be introduced into repository

    • Pre-license application (“maturity test”) was submitted 2009

  • 2020 Operating License submittal

    • Introduction of nuclear waste into encapsulation and repository

    • Fixed period with full safety review at 15 y intervals (or as specified in license)

Tero Varjoranta


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Conclusions

  • In Finland, the spent fuel final disposal project has progress over 30 years in a systematic manner consistent with the national strategy, legislation and regulations

  • For disposing the existing spent fuel, public acceptance in Local, Governmental and Parliament levels has been gained and sealed in legal process 2001

  • Nine success factors have been identified, the most important one being “Long term political commitment to resolve the nuclear waste issue”.

  • As of today, in light of complying with the Finnish safety, security and safeguards regulations, work remains but there are no indications which would suggest that the repository couldn’t be

    • built to comply with the regulations

    • apply for operating license round 2020

Tero Varjoranta


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