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EIGHT. Organizing the Body of the Speech. CHAPTER. Chronological Order. A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern. Example of Chronological Order. Specific Purpose: To inform my audience how the Great Wall of China was built.

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Chronological order

EIGHT

Organizing the Body of the Speech

CHAPTER

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Chronological order

Chronological Order

A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Example of chronological order

Example of Chronological Order

Specific Purpose: To inform my audience how the Great Wall of China was built.

Central Idea:The Great Wall of China was built in three stages.

Main Points: I. Building of the Great Wall began during the Chou dynasty in the fourth century B.C.

II.New sections of the Great Wall were added during the Ch’in, Han, and Sui dynasties from 221 B.C.-618 A.D.

III. The Great Wall was completed during the Ming Dynasty of 1368-1644.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Spatial order

Spatial Order

A method of speech organization in which

the main points follow a directional pattern.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Example of spatial order

Example of Spatial Order

Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the design of the Eiffel Tower.

Central Idea:The Eiffel Tower is divided into three

sections.

Main Points: I. The lowest section of the tower contains the entrance, a gift shop, and a restaurant.

II.The middle section of the tower consists of stairs and elevators that lead to the top.

III. The top section of the tower includes an observation deck with a spectacular view of Paris.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Causal order

Causal Order

A method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Example of causal order

Example of Causal Order

Specific Purpose:To inform my audience about the possible causes for the collapse of Mayan civilization.

Central Idea:The causes for the collapse of Mayan civilization have not been fully explained.

Main Points: I.Mayan civilization flourished for over a thousand years until 900 A.D., when it mysteriously began to disintegrate. (EFFECT)

II.Scholars have advanced three major explanations for the causes of this disintegration. (CAUSE)

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Problem solution order

Problem-Solution Order

A method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Example of problem solution order

Example of Problem-Solution Order

Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that the United States should act now to solve the problem of adult illiteracy.

Central Idea:Adult illiteracy is a continuing problem that can only be solved by a national commitment on the part of government and individual citizens.

Main Points: I.Adult illiteracy has reached crisis proportions in the United States.

II.Solving the problem will require action by government and citizens alike.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Topical order

Topical Order

A method of speech organization in which the main points divide the the topic into logical and consistent subtopics.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Example of topical order

Example of Topical Order

Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the artistic versatility of Pablo Picasso.

Central Idea: Picasso was equally versatile as a painter, sculptor, and printmaker.

Main Points: I. As a painter, Picasso tested the limits of abstraction.

II. As a sculptor, Picasso often incorporated “found” objects.

III. As a printmaker, Picasso gave vent to his whimsy and eroticism.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Connective

Connective

A word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Types of connectives

Types of Connectives

  • Transition

  • Internal preview

  • Internal summary

  • Signpost

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Transition

Transition

A word or phrase that indicates when

a speaker has finished one thought and

is moving on to another.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Examples of transitions

Examples of Transitions

  • Now that we have explored the ancient origins of astrology, let us turn to its modern popularity.

  • So much for the present; what about the future?

  • We have spent a lot of time talkingabout the problem. It’s time to discuss the solution.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Internal preview

Internal Preview

A statement in the body of the speech

that lets the audience know what the

speaker is going to discuss next.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Example of an internal preview

Example of an Internal Preview

In discussing how Asian Americans have

been stereotyped in the mass media, we’ll

look first at the origins of the problem and

second at its continuing impact today.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Transition combined with internal preview

Transition Combined with Internal Preview

[Transition]:Now that we have seen how serious the problem of faulty credit reports is, let’s look at some solutions.

[Internal Preview]:I will focus on three--instituting tighter government regulation of credit bureaus, holding credit bureaus financially responsible for their errors, and giving individuals easier access to their credit reports.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Internal summary

Internal Summary

A statement in the body of the speech

that summarizes the speaker’s preceding

point or points.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Example of an internal summary

Example of an Internal Summary

In short, palm reading is an ancient art.

Developed in China more than five

thousand years ago, it was practiced

in classical Greece and Rome, flourished

during the Middle Ages, survived the

Industrial Revolution, and remains

popular today.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Internal summary combined with a transition

Internal Summary Combined with a Transition

[Internal Summary]:Let’s pause for a moment to recapitulate what we have found so far. First, we have seen that America’s criminal justice system does not effectively deter crime. Second, we have seen that prison programs to rehabilitate criminals have failed miserably. [Transition]: We are now ready to explore solutions to these problems.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Signpost

Signpost

A very brief statement that indicates

where a speaker is in the speech or that

focuses attention on key ideas.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Examples of signpost

Examples of Signpost

The first step in producing a Broadway play is choosing the play.

The second step in producing a Broadway play is selecting the cast.

The third step in producing a Broadway play is conducting the rehearsals.

The fourth step in producing a Broadway play is performing the play.

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


Chronological order

Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


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