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Chapter 11. Physical Fitness and Activity Assessment in Adults. Adult Fitness Testing. Reliability Validity Relevance Objectivity Normative Data Feasibility. Table 11-1 Populations and Purposes of Physical Fitness Testing. Table 11-2 Health-Related Fitness Factors and Benefits.

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Chapter 11 l.jpg

Chapter 11

Physical Fitness and Activity Assessment in Adults


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Adult Fitness Testing

  • Reliability

  • Validity

  • Relevance

  • Objectivity

  • Normative Data

  • Feasibility


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Table 11-1Populations and Purposes of Physical Fitness Testing


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Table 11-2Health-Related Fitness Factors and Benefits


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Figure 11.1Relationship Between Cardiovascular Endurance and Cardiovascular Death Rate

Cardiovascular death rate

Cardiovascular endurance quartile


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Table 11-3Major Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease


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Table 11.3Risk Classification


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Measuring Aerobic Capacity

  • Aerobic Capacity

    • Laboratory Maximal Tests Submaximal Estimations

    • Field Methods Distance Runs Step Tests Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test Predicting VO2max Without Exercise


Figure 11 4 linear relationships among oxygen consumption heart rate and workload l.jpg
Figure 11.4Linear Relationships Among Oxygen Consumption,Heart Rate, and Workload


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Measuring Body Composition

  • Body Composition

    • Laboratory Hydrostatic Weighing Using Body Density

    • Field Methods Skinfolds Body Mass Index Distribution of Body Fat Waist/Hip Girth Ratio > 1.00 for males > risk > 0.80 for females > risk

      Waist Girth > 102 cm (40 in) for males > risk > 88 cm (35 in) for females > risk


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What is your BMI?

Use Table 11-16 on pages 242 - 243




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Calculation of Lean Weight and Fat Weight

  • 1) Determine total body weight (TBW)

  • 2) Determine percent fat

  • 3) Fat weight = TBW * percent fat

  • 4) Lean Weight (LW) = TBW - FW


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Calculation of Target Weight

  • Calculation of Target Weight 1) Determine your lean weight (TBW - FW) 2) Determine your target percent fat (TPF) 3) Target weight = LW / (1 - TPF/100)

  • This method assumes: 1) Your target percent fat is less than your current percent fat 2) Your goal is to lose fat weight


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Muscular Strength and Endurance

  • SpecificityDetermined with concurrent validity (i.e., PPM)

  • PowerThe time rate of doing work

  • Muscular enduranceRepetitive performance

  • Relative enduranceRelative to maximum performance

  • Absolute enduranceAt a fixed resistance



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Measuring Muscular Strength and Endurance

  • Muscular Strength and Endurance

    • LaboratoryComputerized Dynamometers Back Extension Strength Test

    • Field methodsTraditional Weight Lifting Tests Body Resistance (i.e., pull-ups, sit-ups, etc.) 1 Repetition Max 10 Repetition Max Trial-and-error estimation



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Measuring Flexibility

  • Flexibility is very joint specific

    • LaboratoryGoniometry Flexometer Visual estimation Radiography Photography Linear measurements Trigonometry

    • Field methodsTrunk Flexion (Sit-and-reach) Trunk Extension




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Health Related Fitness Battery

  • YMCA Physical Fitness Test BatteryHeight Weight Resting heart rate Resting blood pressure Body composition Cardiovascular evaluation Flexibility Muscular strength and endurance


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Health Related Fitness Battery

  • Canadian Standardized Test of FitnessResting heart rate Resting blood pressure Body composition (skinfolds) Cardiovascular endurance Flexibility (sit-and-reach)

    Abdominal endurance Upper-body strength and endurance


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Aging is related to . . .

  • decreased sensations of taste, smell, vision, and hearing,

  • decreased mental abilities,

  • decreased organ function,

  • decreased bone mineral content, and

  • decreased physical fitness.

All of these factors lead to a decreased quality of life,

health-related fitness, and functional fitness.


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Table 11-24Fitness Parameters and Items of the Older Adult Fitness Test


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Health Related Fitness Battery forSpecial Populations

Anaerobic capacity and power

Aerobic capacity

Electrocardiographic response to exercise

Muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility

Body composition


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Measuring Physical Activity

  • Is important because physical activity is related to physical fitness

  • Physical activity is related to quality of life and functional capacity

  • Physical inactivity is related to development of a variety of diseases


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Figure 11.19The relationship of health-related fitness to thephysical activity pyramid


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Measuring Physical Activity

  • Direct measurement include: Observation Calorimetry Step counters Motion sensors

  • Field methods include: Self-report Diaries



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A five-level single-responseassessment of physical activity


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A five-level single-responseassessment of physical activity

These 3 groups do NOT meet the

Surgeon General’s guidelines for sufficient

physical activity for a health benefit


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A five-level single-responseassessment of physical activity

These 2 groups DO meet the

Surgeon General’s guidelines for sufficient

physical activity for a health benefit


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CRT Reliability

How could you determine the

criterion-referenced reliability of the

5-level single response item?

1) Administer the question on TWO occasions.

2) Determine if the respondent meets or fails to

meet the Surgeon General’s guidelines on each

occasion.

3) Develop a 2X2 table as illustrated in chapter 7.


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A five-level single-responseassessment of physical activity

Does NOT meet SG guidelines

DOES meet SG guidelines


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Administration 2

Not

Met

Met

Not

Met

Administration 1

Met

CRT Reliability5-level, single-response Physical Activity Item



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A Practical Health-Related Fitness Battery

  • Cardiovascular endurance Rockport 1-Mile Walk Test

  • Body composition BMI and Waist/Hip girth ratio

  • Abdominal power YMCA 1-minute sit-up test

  • Upper body strength and endurance Canadian Standardized test of fitness push- up test

  • Hamstring flexibility YMCA sit-and-reach test


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