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Azimuthal Anisotropy and the QGP. Yasuo MIAKE, Univ. of Tsukuba. Why I Iike azimuthal anisotropy Tsukuba strategy for RHIC-PHENIX What is found at RHIC. Reaction Plane. Almond shape. Reasons why I love azimuthal anisotropy. Info. on mean free path  vs. R

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Azimuthal anisotropy and the qgp l.jpg

Azimuthal Anisotropy and the QGP

Yasuo MIAKE, Univ. of Tsukuba

Why I Iike azimuthal anisotropy

Tsukuba strategy for RHIC-PHENIX

What is found at RHIC


Reasons why i love azimuthal anisotropy l.jpg

Reaction

Plane

Almond shape

Reasons why I love azimuthal anisotropy

  • Info. on mean free path  vs. R

    • Anisotropy of the coordinate space converted to that of the momentum space.

  • Clear origin of the signal !

    • Geometry is clear

    • From eccentricity to v2

    • Centrailty dependence gives good tests

  • Sensitivity to the early stage of collisions !

  • Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Sensitivity to the early stage l.jpg
    Sensitivity to the early stage

    RQMD

    Kolb et.al., PRC62(2000)054909

    • Anisotropy in coordinate space disappears quickly

    • Ratio of eccentricity after a time delay

      • Disappears quickly

      •  v2 senses early stage of collision

    Time

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Key1 reliable r p determination l.jpg

    0-5%

    5-10%

    10-20%

    beam

    BBC

    BBC

    Central arm

    Key1; reliable R.P. determination

    • Wide rapidity gap from central detector

      • Free from other source of corr such as HBT, decays, jets & auto-corr.

    • Corr. between SMD(spect) and BBC(part) also confirmed

      • →R.P. determination from whole event wide

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Key2 pid with tof aerogel l.jpg

    e+

    p+

    PHENIX Preliminary

    K+

    Proton

    385cm

    p

    K-

    200cm

    p-

    e-

    200cm

    Key2; PID with TOF & Aerogel

    • High resolution TOF and low index of 1.01 Aerogel Cherenkov

      • Both Tsukuba contribution

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    What we expected before rhic l.jpg
    What we expected before RHIC

    • There is a tendency of saturation!?

    • Hadron cascade predicts a few %.

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Surprise l.jpg

    RHIC

    SPS

    AGS

    Surprise !

    • Early compilation

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Large azimuthal anisotropy l.jpg

    Phenix; P.R.L. 94, 232302(2005)

    Central

    Peripheral

    Large azimuthal anisotropy

    • Larger in higher energies.

    • Increase with pt and saturate

    PHOBOS; nucl-ex/0406021

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Failure of hadronic scenarios l.jpg
    Failure of hadronic scenarios

    • Hadronic scenario underestimates v2 at RHIC.

      • v2 ~ 1 - 2 %

    • System thermalized early with the mechanism other than hadronic rescatterings.

    M. Bleicher, H. Stocker Phys. Lett. B526 (2003) 309

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    V 2 vs eccentricity l.jpg
    v2 vs. Eccentricity

    Phenix; PRL 89(2002)212301

    • At low pt region, the ratio stays ~constant

    • Eccentricity scaling observed in comparison of Au+Au, Cu+Cu

      • Scaling with eccentricity shows v2 builds up at early stage

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    V 2 with particle identification l.jpg
    v2 with particle identification

    PHENIX : P.R.L. 91, 182301 (2003)

    • Low pt region;

      • v2() > v2(K) > v2(p)

        • Mass Ordering

      • Good agreement with hydrodynamics

        • Very early thermalization (0.6 fm/c) & high energy density (~20 GeV/fm3) required !

          • More from Hirano’s talk

        • Perfect fluid (low viscous)

      • What brings the system thermalization in such a short time!

        • Partonic degree of freedom

  • Deviations at high pt region (> 1.5 GeV/c);

    • v2(,K) < v2(p)

      • Meson vs Baryon?

      • Other mechanism?

  • PHENIX Preliminary : [email protected]

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Mass ordering in single spectra l.jpg

    mt-m

    Mass Ordering in single spectra

    Au+Au at 200 GeV/n

    PHENIX, PRC69,034909(2004)

    • Exponential in mt for low pt region

      • Known from AGS & SPS era

    • Mass ordering of slope parameters

      • Proof of hydrodynamical collective flow

    Collective Flow

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Other surprise baryon dominance l.jpg
    Other surprise; baryon dominance

    • We had many reasons to consider > 2GeV/c is the jet region.

    • In peripheral, p/ ratio similar to those in ee/pp suggesting fragmentaton process.

      • Fragmentation process should show np < n as seen in ee/pp.

    • In central Au+Au, p/ ratio increases with centrality, suggesting other mechanism.

    Phenix; P.R.L. 91(2003)172301

    High resolution Time-of flight detector

    Quark Recombination Model

    (Quark Coalescence Model)

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Quark recombination model reco l.jpg

    Hadron

    Mom. distr. of meson (2q);

    Mom. distr. of baryon (3q);

    w(pt);

    Universal mom. distr. of quarks

    {steep in pt}

    QGP

    Quark recombination model (RECO)

    • Quarks, anti-quarks combine to form mesons and baryons from universal quark distribution, w(pt).

    • Characteristic scaling features expected.

    • Quark number scaling

    Because of the steep distr. of w(pt),RECO wins at high pt even w. small Cx.

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Proton dominance by reco l.jpg
    Proton dominance by RECO

    • Recombination model explains the proton dominance.

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    V 2 from reco l.jpg

    Hadron

    QGP

    V2 from RECO

    • Characteristic scaling behavior

    Azimutal distr. of meson (2q);

    Azimuthal distr. of baryon (3q);

    Azimuthal distr of quark; w

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Quark number scaling observed l.jpg

    Presented by M. Lamont (QM04)

    Baryon

    Meson

    Quark number scaling observed!

    • Quark number scaling clearly observed in v2.

    • Distinct difference between Baryon Meson also seen in RCP, yield ratio of central and peripheral coll.

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Mass ordering of quarks l.jpg
    Mass ordering of quarks?

    Accidental OR ordering in mass of quarks?

    Existence of hypersurface where QGP converted to hadrons?

    WWND 2006, M. Issah

    KET = mT – m

    Kinetic energy of constituent quarks

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Study of electron for charm l.jpg

    gconversion

    p0 gee

    h gee, 3p0

    w ee, p0ee

    f ee, hee

    r ee

    h’  gee

    Study of electron for charm

    • Origins of electrons

      • “photonic”

        • Dalitz decays of 

        • Photon conversions

      • “non-photonic”

        • Semi-leptonic decays of heavy flavored mesons

    • Electron yields are consistent with those photonic + charm decays.

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Charm v 2 from electrons l.jpg

    photonic e v2

    inclusive e v2

    (w.o. converter)

    measured

    evaluated

    known

    obtained!

    Charm v2 from electrons

    S.Esumi & S. [email protected]

    • Measure v2 of inclusive electrons

    • Evaluate contribution of photonic electron

      • Cocktail Method

      • Converter Method

    • Then, subtract !

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Charm seems to flow l.jpg
    Charm seems to flow!

    S.Esumi & S. [email protected]

    • Data seem to favor the flow of the charm.

    • If so, thermalized & flowing charm supports quark-coalescence & formation of QGP.

    V.Greco, C.M.Ko, R.Rapp,PLB595(2004)202.

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Study of direct photon l.jpg

    v2

    v2

    0.2

    0.2

    0.1

    0.1

    0.0

    0.0

    Study of direct photon

    PHENIX, PRL 96,032302(2006)

    • Pi-zero results consistent with other mesons

    • No significant diff. btwn inclusive v2 and expected photon v2 from hadronic decay (pion, eta, etc)

      • Direct photons are from compton-like “prompt” process?

    R; direct photon excess ratio

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


    Summary of my talk l.jpg
    Summary of my talk

    • v2 is fun!

      • Establishment of R.P. is great !

    • v2 is even useful !

      • Sensitive to the early stage of collisions

      • Thermalization as early as 0.6 fm/c

        • Large azimuthal anisotropy cannot be generated with hadronic process.

      • Support the quark recombination model

        • Collectivity at parton level

        • Phenomenological, but universal quark distribution function!

        • statistical description of quarks QGP

    • Much fun to come

      • Charm & photon !

    New text book for graduate students

    Y.Miake, 6th China-Japan Joint Nuclear Physics Symposium, Shanghai, May 16-20, 2006


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