TAH – Year 1 Topic: African American Beginnings – Slavery, Culture and Contributions
Explain the transfer of the institution of slavery into South Carolina from the West Indies, including the slave trade and the role of African Americans in the developing economy; the daily lives of African American slaves and their contributions to South Carolina, such as the Gullah culture and the introduction of new foods; and African American acts of resistance against white authority.
1. The Slave Trade -- Portuguese/ Spanish beginnings
2. The English begin colonization and enter the Slave Trade
3. Barbados/ South Carolina connection
4. African American lives -- economic, social and cultural contributions to South Carolina
5. African American acts of resistance
Portuguese plantations were the first venue for African enslavement.
In Africa itself there had been slavery evolving from interethnic rivalries and warfare. Slaves had been put to work primarily as domestic servants. Slavery, however, was not a permanent condition and, in many cases, resulted in assimilation of the enslaved into the population of their enslavement.
4. African American lives - - economic social and cultural contributions to South Carolina.
The enslaved suffered from high mortality rates from disease, and poor treatment. Physical force was unleashed against them. There was therefore need for continued replacements of African slaves.
As a result of “miscegenation” (largely as a result of rape) distinct social classes began to develop in the black population based on shadings of skin color.
The dominance in the number of Africans in South Carolina allowed for the preservation of much of their African heritage. As more African women were imported during the 1750’s, African Americans were able to preserve many aspects of West African extended family life and naming practices.
5. African American Acts of Resistance
Summarize the introduction and establishment of slavery in the American
colonies, including the role of the slave trade; the nature of the middle
passage; and the types of goods -- rice, indigo, sugar, tobacco, and rum, for
example that were exchanged among the West Indies, Europe and the
1. Introduction and establishment of slavery in the American colonies -- role of the slave trade. (types of goods)
2. The middle passage (capture and process)
In 1619, 20 Africans were captured by a Dutch man-of-war ship from a Spanish trader. The Dutch traded the Africans in Virginia for supplies. The African Americans apparently fed into the system of indentured labor with the right to freedom after a period of service.
A series of laws (slave codes) passed by the Virginia House of Burgesses between 1639 and 1662 gradually separated white from black indentured laborers, shifting Blacks from indentured servitude of slavery.
The legal status of slaves was declared in :
1641 by the English Massachusetts Bay Colony
1650 by Connecticut
1663 by Maryland
1665 by New York
1682 by South Carolina
1714 by New Hampshire
1721 by Delaware
1750 by Georgia which had previously banned slavery in 1735, legalized it.
2. The Middle Passage (capture and process)
Explain the impact of Indentured Servitude and slavery on life in the new
world and the contributions of African slaves to the development of the
American colonies, including farming techniques, cooking styles and
1.The impact of indentured servitude and slavery on life in the new world.
2. The contributions of African slaves to the development of the American colonies -- farming techniques, cooking styles, and languages.
Explain the growth of the African American population during the colonial
period and the significance of African Americans in the developing culture
(e.g. Gullah) and economy of South Carolina including the origins of African
American slaves, the growth of the slave trade, the impact of population
imbalance between African and European Americans, and the Stone rebellion
and subsequent laws to control the slave population.
1. The origins of African American slaves
2. Growth of the slave trade and the African American population during the Colonial period; and the impact of the population imbalance between African and European Americans.
3. The Stono rebellion and subsequent laws to control the slave population
4. The significance of African Americans in the developing culture (e.g. Gullah)
2. Growth of the slave trade and the African American population during the colonial periods; and the impact of the population imbalance between Africans and Europeans Americans.
1706 -- 24 Africans imported
1724 -- 734 Africans imported
1726 --1750 -- 1000 Africans imported annually
1765 -- 8000 Africans imported
“Our Negros are very numerous and more dreadful to our safety than any
Spanish invaders. I am also sending for some Cherokee Indians to come
down to the settlements to be an awe to the Negros.”
By the 1760’s blacks were estimated at 57,253 with 15,000 being adult
males, while whites were only about 6,000 of the S.C. population.
The significance of African Americans in the developing culture (e.g. Gullah)
Farming techniques: They applied the African focus on group organization that led to the “gang system”.
Cooking styles: Barbecued pork, fried chicken, black eyed peas, collard and mustard greens.
Language: Impact on Southern diction and phraseology, speech patterns and intonations
Music: Africans transferred traditional patterns to English ballads.