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Project Management. Jane Wiggins. BIFM Syllabus. Role of the Project Manager Typical FM Projects Development of project briefs Project programmes Project budgets Project teams Handover Evaluation. Context. What is a project?

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Project Management

Jane Wiggins


BIFM Syllabus

  • Role of the Project Manager

  • Typical FM Projects

  • Development of project briefs

  • Project programmes

  • Project budgets

  • Project teams

  • Handover

  • Evaluation


Context

  • What is a project?

  • When is a project a project and not just the normal workload of a FM?


What is a Project?

  • A significant, non-routine change, with defined objectives, a clear start/end and which requires an investment decision. It needs to be planned, monitored and controlled.

  • need - change - plan

  • Projects need sponsors, owners, partners and of course a manager!


Definitions of a Project

  • “a specific job, with a discrete beginning and end, which produces predetermined results”

  • “A significant, non-routine change, with defined objectives, a clear start/end and which requires an investment decision. It needs to be planned, monitored and controlled”

  • “A series of related activities aimed at achieving the same ultimate objective, with minimum risk”

  • “A discrete piece of work which has a clear start and finish and provides specific benefits for accepted costs in an agreed time-scale”


Features of a project

  • One off / non standard

  • People from different disciplines

  • Team for the single project

  • Productivity hard to measure

  • Lines of authority not easy to define

  • Many views / perceptions of success


Factors to consider

  • Project management culture

  • Key features of project management

  • Project life cycle

  • Scope of a project

  • Project planning

  • Project control

  • Project team

  • Role of individuals

  • Project manager

  • Project Failure

  • Contractual Procedures


Characteristics

  • a project is goal orientated

  • constraints relating to time and resources

  • outputs can be measured

  • one-off change as a result of the project


The Elements

  • An objective – a definable end result

  • Complexity – many different tasks needed

  • Uniqueness – usually a ‘one-off’

  • Uncertainty – element of risk

  • Temporary - defined beginning and end

  • Life cycle - resource requirements change during project


Role of the Project Manager


Role of the Project Manager

  • Objectives

  • Responsibilities

    • Target setting

    • Risk analysis

    • Planning

    • Control

    • Monitor

    • Management


Technical Competence

  • product knowledge

  • ability to understand the overall process

  • know how to avoid and mitigate problems

  • know how to effectively overcome and rectify errors

  • know when to seek expert advice

  • awareness of new technology and methods


Project Initiation

Terms of Reference

Steering Committee

Project Finance / Budget

Change control procedures

Set up project file / quality standards & procedures

Project strategy / Risk Management Study

Roles & Responsibilities

User involvement

Security and privacy aspects

Determine methodology

Selection of tools to use

Team selection criteria

External resource requirements

Brief the team


Terms of Reference (TOR)

  • Background

  • Objectives

  • Scope

  • Constraints

  • Assumptions

  • Reporting

  • Deliverables


Background

  • Puts the project into context

  • Why do it and why now?

  • Business benefits


Objectives

  • Business objectives

  • Project objectives

  • SMART


Scope

  • Business areas

  • Business processes

  • Geographical locations

  • Interfaces

  • Inclusions & Exclusions

    use appropriate language for the reader, avoid jargon


Constraints

  • Limitations on time

  • Cashflow

  • Milestones

  • Legislation

  • Technology

  • Location

  • Landlord

  • Experience


Assumptions

  • Areas of uncertainty to be sorted out

  • Information required for final TOR

  • Link to risks

  • check with sponsor, end user, client, stakeholders, partners.


Reporting

  • Progress

  • Escalation

  • Format

  • Frequency

  • Who


Deliverables

  • “physical outcome of a piece of work”

  • can check work done and quality of work

  • identify the major deliverables with when and who

  • state the quality required

  • confirm who confirms acceptance


Project programmes


Culture

  • Geography – affects deliveries, resources, climate etc

  • Finance – fluctuations in price, interest rates, exchange rates

  • Politics – unstable and changing governments

  • Local Laws – Labour Laws, holidays, wages, health and safety etc

  • National culture – Language, Customs, expectations, prejudices

  • Needs of User – needs are not always apparent and may change


Objective for sponsor

  • Their project expectations

    • Achieving the desired objectives

    • Delivery at the right time

    • At an economic price – value for money


Key features

  • Clearly defined objectives

  • Constraints of time, cost and work (quality)

  • Finite Life cycle – start & finish

  • An element of risk and innovation

  • Cutting across organisation boundaries

  • Using transient resources – changing & range of skills

  • Operating within defined funding limits - budget


Project Life Cycle

  • CONCEPTION

  • INITIATION

  • IMPLEMENTATION

  • CLOSURE

  • EVALUATION


Scoping a Project

  • The process of scoping a project involves seeking clarity of the AIMS AND OBJECTIVES of the project

    • Define the project objectives

    • Define the scope

    • Define the strategy


Define the Project Objectives

  • Provide overall direction for the project

  • Help staff focus on the rationale of the project and its expected results

  • Provides a definition of the end point which can be used to monitor progress

  • The objectives must be clear and can be expressed in terms of :

    • Purpose

    • End result

    • Success criteria


Define the Scope

This defines the exact range of responsibilities taken on by project management, and will set boundaries as to:

  • a) what the project will do

  • b) what it will not do

  • c) who is responsible for what


Project specification

The scope will be formalised in the project specification and involves defining and identifying :

  • The parts of the organisation affected by the project

  • The time period involved

  • The business process involved

  • The resources to be used

  • Responsibilities of the contractor(s)


Define the Strategy

  • Objectives

  • Phases

  • Milestones


Project Planning

  • Realistic

  • Achievable

  • Flexible

  • Contingency

  • Best available information

  • Critical events

  • Targets


Project Planning

  • Operational research techniques

    • Gantt (Bar Chart) Programmes

    •  Network Analysis

    •  Precedence Diagrams

    •  Linear Programming

    •  Computer Modelling

  • Useful tools


Project budgets


Project Budgets

Business Case

Estimates

Tender

Negotiation

Contract / POs

Approvals

Cash flow

progress payments

fiscal periods

accruals / prepayments

Contingencies

Fees

Preliminaries

Retention

Penalities

Performance Bonds

VAT

Capital allowances


Project Control

  • Purpose of control?

    • Proactive

    • Reactive

  • Control Systems

    • Progress and cost control

    • Quality control

    • Change control


Controlling Projects

“Control is the process of evaluating a situation, and assessing it’s impact and taking action in response to that situation”


Project Control

  • Know where you are

  • Know why you are there

  • Know where you are going


Quality

  • Quality Assurance - process for delivery of quality

  • Quality Control - end product and measure of achievement


Project Quality Control

  • Team members must be continually aware of quality requirements

  • Employ firms operating ISO 9000 series QA

  • Clarity in specifications

  • Careful selection of Consultants & Contractors

  • Regular testing & monitoring of works

  • Establish standards at an early date

  • Don’t compromise on desired quality


Project Control

  • TIME

  • COST

  • QUALITY

  • the systems to monitor these need to be implemented at the earliest possible stage in the process


Project Control

  • Value for money

    • Effective

    • Efficent

    • Economic


Project Cost Control

  • VALUE MANAGEMENT

  • Control varied and extra work

  • Pre-value all extras

  • Avoid claims situations and disputes

  • Ensure Orders and Contracts are clear and unambiguous

  • Regular “prediction” of final costs


Progress and Cost Control


A control review

  • Where we are?

  • Why are we there?

  • What is the impact?

  • What needs to be done?

    Beware of responses to the checks...

    • “so good, so far”

    • “we shall not be moved”

    • see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil”


Change control

  • Change control is intended to enable change

  • Not prevent or limit change

  • but not all changes are necessary or valid

  • Log to audit requests, acceptance, cost and rejections

  • Time consuming

  • Costly


Change Control

  • Log each change request

  • Establish justification in business terms

  • Assess impact

    • within scope - PM to deal

    • outside scope - Sponsor / Owner

  • Decide on action - accept or reject

  • Communicate decision


Change Management Theories

  • Lewin’s unfreeze, change, refreeze

    • equilibrium between force fields

  • Culture of organisation

  • Planned or emergent

  • Incremental or radical

  • Simple or transformational

  • Kotter’s 8 Steps of change


Project teams


Project Team

  • Cooperation

  • Joint sense of purpose

  • Group identity

  • Assembly of appropriate people

  • Skills

  • Compatible


The Role of Individuals

  • Client

  • Sponsor

  • Stakeholder

  • Champion

  • Contractor


The Project Manager

Qualities of a good Project Manager:

  • technical competence

  • leader - communicator - delegator

  • organiser - planner - co-ordinator

  • personality

  • common sense

  • sense of humour


The FM Project Team

Project manager

FM

Finance / Procurement

Planning Supervisor

User / Client

Designer / Architect

Cost Consultant / QS

M&E Services

Specialists

Acoustics, Fire, Security, Structural, IT, Access, Ergonomics, AV, Lifts, Equipment, Furniture, Catering, Highways, Asbestos

Contractor

Others?


Construction Team

  • Project Manager

  • Architect

  • Planning Supervisor - CDM

  • Quantity Surveyor

  • Other Consultants e.g Structural engineer

  • Planning Authorities

  • Building Control

  • Main Contractor

  • Specialist Subcontractors

  • Sale or Letting Agent


Performance of Team

Team building

Communications

Meetings

Information

Contact details

Awayday

Social

Celebrations

Co-location

Supportive framework

Prompt rectification of issues / show stoppers

Value contribution

Respect

Regular contact by PM


Typical FM Projects


Typical FM Projects

Minor refurbishment

toilets, reception, offices

Relocation

New heating / lighting systems

New computer system

Major Capital Works

Lift replacement

Extension

Design & Build

New buildings


Development of project briefs


Project Briefs

  • Why?

  • Benefit

  • Problems / issues if no brief?

  • Who develops it?

  • Content

  • Structure


Fundamentals of Project Management

  • Project Initiation

  • Project Planning

  • Project Control

  • Successful Project Ingredients


Key elements for success

  • Success criteria agreed

  • TOR clear and understood

  • Effective Planning and control

  • Adequate resources

  • Continuous Customer Involvement

  • Roles & Responsibilities Understood

  • Partnership Concept Adopted


Risk Management

  • Risk Assessment

  • Risk Analysis

    • Probability x Impact

  • Risk Containment

    • Preventative x Contingent


Business Risk

  • What are the risks of failure?

    • Consider the impact on

      • Organisation

      • People

      • Image

      • Performance / Profit

      • Other projects

  • Risk Forum

  • Brainstorm

    • Actions


Symptoms of Risk Outcomes

  • Late delivery

  • Over budget

  • Contain errors or omissions

  • Not work or function as expected

  • Difficult to operate or use

  • Costly to support, maintain or enhance

  • May never be implementated


Managing the Risks

  • Quantify the costs of failure

  • Quantify the cost of mitigation

  • Quantify the cost of management

  • Balance - cost / benefit analysis

  • Is it worth it?


Risk Monitoring

  • An ongoing feature of project management

  • Need to manage the show stoppers

  • Identify frequency, depth, responsibility and accountability of monitoring tasks

  • Agenda item for every project review meeting


Roles & Responsibilities

  • Project Sponsor

  • Project Owner

  • Project Manager

  • Project Partnership

    • contractors, users, advisors,


Project Sponsor

  • Show public commitment

  • Promotes / sells project to organisation

  • Ensures objectives & scope are clear / valid

  • Supports the Project Manager

  • Ensures commitment to the project plan

  • Reviews progress against objectives

  • Acts as Project Champion


Project Sponsor

  • What do their “own” in the project?

  • Quality Plan

  • Business Risk

  • Budget

  • Decision making progress

  • Realising the project business benefits


Issues facing the Sponsor

  • Establish / maintain priorities

  • Ensure suitable & stable environment

  • Deal with the politics / adversaries

  • Time management

  • Resources

  • Conflict with Project Manager

  • Balance of Time / Quality / Cost


Project Manager

  • Maintains and controls the project

  • Directs and co-ordinates all project activities and tasks

  • Maintains realistic project plans

  • Day to day decision maker

  • Manage assigned resources

  • Provide control & cost information


Project Support

  • Software

    • eg MS Project, Project Commander

  • General admin support

    • minutes, meetings, programme charts, contacts

  • Assurance for sponsors

  • Maintain project history

  • Ensure consistent reporting

  • Keep to review dates


Partnership in a Project

  • Common goals

  • Cultural fit

  • Commitment

  • Team work

  • Shared risk

  • Responsibility and accountability

    assume that everyone wants success!


Quality Plan

  • Used typically in large projects or projects over 6 months duration

  • Definition

  • A document created and maintained by the Project Manager which describes the project and measures to be taken to ensure project delivers a quality project


Quality Plan

  • TOR

  • Risk Summary

  • Organisation

  • Structure

  • Quality targets

  • Plan and review dates

  • Change control

  • Training

  • Communications


Project Stages

  • Customer Involvement

  • Study before solutions

  • Two levels of planning

  • Continuous improvement

  • Business review points

    “Think before you act or commit”


Project MethodologyF A D E


FADE

  • Problem saving system

  • Each phase has an output

  • Can be applied to all problems / projects both small and large

  • Three basic steps per phase which work for most projects / problems

  • Different tools can be used in each step/phase


Steps within FADE


Tools

Brainstorming

Multivoting selection grid

Impact analysis

Problem statement

Checklist

Data-gathering plan

Sampling

Survey

Pareto analysis

Fishbone diagram

Flowchart

Innovation transfer

Cost benefit analysis

Force-field analysis

Process description

Specifications

Action plan


Focus Stage

  • Identify the project

  • Clarify background

  • Investigate customer objectives

  • Initial risk analysis

  • Agree roles & responsibilities

  • Create & agree quality plan

  • Plan next stage in detail, rest in outline


Analysis Stage

  • In depth examination of AS IS

  • Detailed requirements of TO BE

  • Detailed cost benefit analysis

  • Confirm project approach

  • Plan next stage & update outline

  • Obtain approval to proceed


Develop Stage

  • Confirm requirements

  • Negotiation

  • Design solution

  • Build

  • Internal test

  • Plan next stage

  • Obtain approval to continue


Execute Stage

  • Prepare site

  • Install equipment

  • Training

  • Implement product of the project

  • Gain acceptance / sign - off

  • Review project

    beware of expectations / staff awareness


Other methodologies?

  • One approach does not suit all projects

  • Tune the method to suit

  • Use more than one method

  • FADE could be applied to each stage or across whole project


Estimating Techniques

  • Guessing

  • Experience (but must be recent and relevant)

  • Work break down structures - bottom up

  • Standard task matrix

  • Work distribution models - top down

  • Delphi


Project planning


Project Planning

  • Planning Steps

  • Planning Techniques

  • Validating a Plan


What is Planning?

  • Action taken now to arrange future events to bring about desired conclusion

  • Organising what is to be done, by whom, and when to achieve success

  • A positive step to control future events


Benefits of Planning

  • Consider alternative approaches and potential pitfalls

  • See at outset if chance of succeeding

  • Organise in advance resources required later

  • Communicate to others what is about to take place, and what their part / role is

  • Get agreement now on the subsequent involvement of others

  • Establish a basis against which to plot progress


Why does planning not always happen?

  • Takes time away from doing

  • Involves sticking neck out

  • Difficult to produce plans to accurately predict future

  • but remember time spent planning is saved in future actions

  • plan is basis for future action which can be modified if necessary


Planning Steps

  • Agree Terms of Reference (Quality Plan)

  • Identify work and effort

  • Identify dependencies

  • Schedule the work (eg Gantt chart)

  • Plan for control


Criteria for a good Plan

  • All activities present

  • Resources shown

  • Dependencies clear

  • Reviews shown

  • Communicative

  • Contingency considered and visible

  • Easy to use and update


Planning techniques

  • Network analysis

    • job sequence, scheduling, time analysis

  • PERT

    • US Navy Special Projects - saved 2 years on Polaris project

  • CPM

    • Dupont used Critical Path Analysis - saved $1 million in first year of using this technique


Handover


Pre-Handover

Training

Testing / Witnessing / Commissioning

Certification of compliance

O&M’s

As Built drawings

Health & Safety File

Practical Completion

Building Logbook

Snagging List

Defects Period

Warranties / Guarantees

Post project defect / fault reporting procedure


Practical Completion

Implications:

  • Insurance of site / building / equipment

  • Maintenance responsibility

  • Site security

  • Health and Safety compliance

  • Commencement of defects liabilities

  • Certification of compliance


The Handover

Training

Testing / Witnessing / Commissioning

Certification of compliance

O&M’s

Health & Safety File

Practical Completion

Building Logbook

Snagging

Defects

Warranties / Guarantees

Post project defect / fault reporting procedure


Evaluation


Project Evaluation

  • Purpose?

  • When?

  • Who?

  • Methods


Project Review Methods

  • Post Implementation Analysis - PIA

  • Post Occupation Evaluation - POA

  • Customer Satisfaction Survey

  • Audit


Fundamentals of Project Management

  • Project Initiation

  • Project Planning

  • Project Control

  • Successful Project Ingredients


Key elements for success

  • Success criteria agreed

  • TOR clear and understood

  • Effective Planning and control

  • Adequate resources

  • Continuous Customer Involvement

  • Roles & Responsibilities Understood

  • Partnership Concept Adopted


Post Occupation Evaluation Why do a POE?

  • assess performance of building

  • are occupiers satisfied

  • any evidence of sick building syndrome

  • affects of building on staff productivity

  • does building support occupants in terms of functional performance

  • cultural change / purpose of project achieved?

  • management or personnel problems?


POE - How do you do it?

  • Standard questionnaires

  • Interviews

  • Observations

  • Physical monitoring

  • Focus groups

  • Energy consumption data

  • Benchmarking


Typical areas of evaluation

  • Product

    • fitness for purpose, specification, compliance

  • Performance

    • users needs, goals, expectations

  • Process

    • performance of FM team, project team, relationship of team members, financial outcome


Types of POE tools

  • Overall Liking Score

  • PROBE

  • BRE project building appraisal

  • BRE/DEGW new project

  • OPI Toolkit

  • Occupational Health staff questionnaire


Barriers to undertaking a POE

  • Terms of contract - what is completion?

  • Commencement of defects liability period - attitudes to defects?

  • Professional indemnity insurance

  • Cost - who pays?

  • Time and effort to conduct

  • Focused on the past

  • Expectations of staff


Benefits of POE

  • Client

    • Feedback from success and failure

    • Assurance to project sponsors that investment has been well spent - problem solved, change delivered etc

    • Assurance to end user that their views are valued and considered

  • Designer

    • Improve future designs

    • Fine tuning to match reality and the brief more closely


Benefits of POE to FM

  • Identification and solution of issues/problems

  • Demonstrates proactive FM

  • Responsive to users issues

  • Active involvement of users in evaluation process

  • Better attitude of users to building and FM team

  • Informed decision making

  • Better understanding of design issues and performance outcomes arising from budget cuts and omissions


Impact / future benefits

  • Facility adaptation easier to manage

  • Cost savings in life cycle of building

  • Accountability of professionals/owners in building performance

  • Long term improvements

  • Improved databases, standards

  • Improved measurement of building performance


Overcoming the barriers

  • Trust between the parties

  • Understanding the insurance issues

  • Better no fault agreements

  • Professional resolution of conflict

  • Recognition of importance and value of POE to industry (construction, architecture and FM


Project Failure Reasons

  • Project objectives not clearly specified

  •  Inexperienced project manager

  •  Too few members of the project team

  •  Inability of project team members

  •  Technology was too new – (over ambitious)

  •  Lack of awareness of project management techniques

  •  Inability to scope changes which occur during project


Project Failure - continued

  • Inaccurate or restricted information

  • Poor performance of suppliers

  •  The project may be misconceived from the outset.

  •  Inadequate and late information provided to contractors/suppliers

  •  Client delays making decisions or requests late changes

  •  Inadequate communications and control


Contract Procedures

  • What are your procedures?

  • Arbitration

  • Disputes

  • Settlements


BIFM Syllabus

  • Role of the Project Manager

  • Typical FM Projects

  • Development of project briefs

  • Project programmes

  • Project budgets

  • Project teams

  • Handover

  • Evaluation


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