The fats and nothing but the fats
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THE FATS, AND NOTHING BUT THE FATS. Fats are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Fats belong to the lipid family, comprised of triglycerides (fats and oils), sterols, and phospholipids. Triglycerides make up the largest percentage in both the body and in food.

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THE FATS, AND NOTHING BUT THE FATS

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The fats and nothing but the fats

THE FATS, AND NOTHING BUT THE FATS

  • Fats are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

    • Fats belong to the lipid family, comprised of triglycerides (fats and oils), sterols, and phospholipids. Triglycerides make up the largest percentage in both the body and in food.

  • Our bodies produce many types of lipids: cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and oils.

  • Fats are a nutrient, a source of energy for the body, all types providing 9 calories per gram (proteins and carbohydrates provide 4 calories per gram).

  • Dietary fats provide essential fatty acids required by, but not produced by, the body.

  • Fats are hydrophobic; they are not water soluble (lipophilic).

  • There are three primary classifications of fats: saturated (includes trans fats), monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated.

  • Dietary fat is stored for energy; it supplies about 60% of the body’s ongoing

  • energy needs during rest.

  • Complete fat metabolism requires protein or carbohydrates.


  • Primary fat groups click below to meet the fats

    PRIMARY FAT GROUPSClick below to Meet the Fats!

    http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/FatsAndOils/MeettheFats/The-Bad-Fats-Brothers_UCM_305102_Article.jsp

    THE BAD FATS

    Saturated fats

    Trans fats

    • Both elevate LDL cholesterol and triglycerides.

    • Both increase risk of heart disease.

    • They mostly are found in animal products.

    • Trans fats are saturated fats that have been partially hydrogenated.

    • Trans fats are frequently found in baked goods.

    • Both are usually solid at room temperature.

    • They should make up no more than 10% daily caloric intake; trans fats should be consumed as little as possible.

    • Trans fats have been linked to infertility.


    Primary fat groups click below to meet the fats1

    PRIMARY FAT GROUPSClick below to Meet the Fats!

    http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/FatsAndOils/MeettheFats/The-Better-Fats-Sisters_UCM_305103_Article.jsp

    THE GOOD FATS

    Monounsaturated fats…

    Polyunsaturated fats…

    • decrease risk of heart disease

    • lower serum cholesterol and triglycerides

    • are usually plant products

    • also found in nuts and Omega-3 rich fish

    • Are usually liquid at room temperature

    • Should predominate total daily fat intake

    • Help prevent blood clots, protect against irregular heartbeats, and reduce blood pressure


    Dietary sources for bad fats saturated fats and trans fats

    DIETARY SOURCES FOR BAD FATS(SATURATED FATS AND TRANS FATS)

    • Animal products including dairy products—cream, whole milk, butter, ice cream

    • Meats—fatty beef, poultry skin, dark poultry meat, organ meats of any kind

    • Partially hydrogenated oils, margarine, shortening

    • Baked goods—pastries, cakes, piecrust, doughnuts, cookies, anything prepared with butter or margarine

    • Chips, fried snacks

    • *Exceptions: Coconut and palm oils are saturated fats, but have beneficial effects similar to unsaturated fats once in the body


    Dietary sources of good fats monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats

    DIETARY SOURCES OF GOOD FATS(MONOUNSATURATED AND POLYUNSATURATED FATS)

    Monounsaturated oils come from sources like olive oil and canola oil, avocados

    Polyunsaturated fats include fatty fish such as salmon or mackerel, sunflower oil, corn or soybean oil, sesame oil, nuts, and seeds.


    Switching to good fats

    SWITCHING TO GOOD FATS

    Remember, it is important to limit your fat intake. More importantly, you should make sure that the fats you DO consume are beneficial. Sometimes, more fat is better, if it is the right kind! Make every effort to switch from bad fats to good fats.


    Effects of fats on health

    EFFECTS OF FATS ON HEALTH

    GOOD EFFECTS

    • Fats provide essential fatty acids necessary to maintain normal body function

    • Fats help control inflammation

    • Fats aid in normal brain function

    • Fats are necessary for the utilization of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K

    • Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are most effective dietary tool to fight heart disease

    • Polyunsaturated fats help lower serum cholesterol


    Health effects of fats

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF FATS

    BAD EFFECTS

    • Saturated fats clog arteries, leading to atherosclerosis

    • Saturated fats and trans fats raise serum LDL cholesterol

    • Dietary fat seems to promote some existing cancers

    • Deficiencies of fats can cause hormonal dysfunction, heart dysrythmias, dry or dull skin and hair, vitamin deficiencies, poor blood clotting ability


    Health recommendations

    HEALTH RECOMMENDATIONS

    • Make fats less than 30% of your daily caloric intake. In a 2000 calorie/day diet, that would be less than 600 calories, and preferably <25%, or <500 calories.

    • Use plant oils for cooking and baking, such as canola or olive oil. Substitute good fats for bad fats.

    • Completely eliminate trans fats. Learn how to recognize them in food labels, and avoid eating baked goods like biscuits, or fried foods in restaurants.

    • Switch from butter to soft margarine, avoiding brands with partially hydrogenated oils.

    • Include at least one source of omega-3 and omega 6 fatty acids a day (forms of polyunsaturated fats), such as fish or walnuts.

    • Stay with lean meats and low-fat dairy products.


    Summary

    SUMMARY

    Fats are an important part of our daily diet. Our bodies are capable of manufacturing most of the fats we need. There are some, however, that must be supplied by food. The secret to good health lies in consuming a limited amount of fats in the right combination to best meet our nutritional

    needs. Like everything else involving our bodies, consumption of fats requires balance. If we eat too much, we gain weight and/or have health problems. If we eat too little, we become malnourished, our immune system weakens, we experience hormonal imbalances and heart rhythm irregularities, and vitamin deficiencies. A balanced diet with whole grains, vegetables, fruits, proteins, dairy, and fats, combined with regular exercise, is the best program to follow for a healthy lifestyle.


    Questions

    QUESTIONS

    Which are considered good fats: saturated or polyunsaturated fats?

    Cheese is high in saturated fats. True or False

    What are the Fats Brothers and Fats Sisters names?

    What is the percentage of fats that should make up our daily caloric intake?

    5) How many calories are in 1 Gm of saturated fat? In 1 Gm of polyunsaturated fat?


    The fats and nothing but the fats

    RESOURCES

    • American Heart Association Meet the Fats. (2010, May 28). Retrieved June 10, 2010, from heart.org/HEARTORG: http://heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy.FatsAndOils/MeettheFats/Meet-the-Fats_UCM_304495_Article.jsp

    • Friendly Fats--and Fiendish Ones. (2010, June 10). Retrieved June 13, 2010, from CBS News: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/06/10/earlyshow/health/main65619.shtml

    • Health Guide, Fat. (2010, June 13). Retrieved June 13, 2010, from New York Times.com: http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/nutrition/fat/overview.html

    • Whitney, E. a. (2005). Understanding Nutrition. In W. a. Rady, Understanding Nutrition (pp. 141-169). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

    • The Nutrition Source, Fats and Cholesterol, The Bottom Line. (2010, June 19). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Harvard School of Public Health: http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/what-should-you-eat/fats-and-cholesterol/index.html


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