How to avoid the hard work of moral decision making
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How to avoid the hard work of moral decision-making:. Stick with what you know… after all, other people with better minds have thought about these things. How to avoid the hard work of moral decision-making:. Think in bumper-stickers. It's Adam and Eve not Adam and Steve.

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How to avoid the hard work of moral decision making

How to avoid the hard work of moral decision-making:

  • Stick with what you know…after all, other people with better minds have thought about these things.


How to avoid the hard work of moral decision making1

How to avoid the hard work of moral decision-making:

  • Think in bumper-stickers...

  • It's Adam and Eve not Adam and Steve.

  • People kill people. Guns don’t kill people.


How to avoid the hard work of moral decision making2

How to avoid the hard work of moral decision-making:

  • Rationalize...

  • Rationalize…

  • Rationalize…


How to avoid the hard work of moral decision making3

How to avoid the hard work of moral decision-making:

  • Practice morality by tummy-ache…

  • Passion above reason…


How to avoid the hard work of moral decision making4

How to avoid the hard work of moral decision-making:

  • Dogma above reason…

  • Antidote:

    Don’t believe everything you think!


How to avoid the hard work of moral decision making5

How to avoid the hard work of moral decision-making:

  • Relativism

  • Any moral opinion is as good as the rest....


Phil 2525 contemporary moral issues lec 3

PHIL 2525Contemporary Moral IssuesLec 3

What are We Talking About?

What is Morality? Rachels Chapter 1


Singular moral judgments vs moral principles

Singular Moral Judgments vs. Moral Principles...


The death of socrates jacques louis david

The Death of SocratesJacques-Louis David


General moral principle or not

General moral principle…or not?

  • Hurting a friend is wrong.

  • The Bible says that thou shalt not kill.

  • Shoplifting might get you into trouble.

  • Stealing is ok.

  • Helping others helps ourselves.

  • Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.

  • Honour thy father and thy mother.


General moral principle or not1

General moral principle…or not?

  • Hurting a friend is wrong.

  • The Bible says that thou shalt not kill.

  • Shoplifting might get you into trouble.

  • Stealing is ok.

  • Helping others helps ourselves.

  • Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.

  • Honour thy father and thy mother.

  • Yes

  • No

  • No

  • Yes

  • No

  • Yes

  • Yes


How to avoid the hard work of moral decision making

  • Conflicting principles...


So back to our arguments

So, back to our arguments...

  • Premise 1 states the case (the way the world is)

  • Premise 2 appends a moral principle

    ------------------------------------------

  • The conclusion follows from the interplay


Moral arguments are arguments with a moral judgment as the conclusion

Moral arguments are arguments with a moral judgment as the conclusion

  • We describe the case: the way the world is

  • We append a moral principle

    ------------------------------------------

  • We conclude based on the interplay


1 1 the problem of definition

1.1 The Problem of Definition

  • “Moral philosophy is the attempt to achieve a systematic understanding of the nature of morality and what it requires of us…

  • Socrates: We are discussing no small matter, but how we ought to live


1 2 baby theresa anencephaly

1.2 Baby Theresa.....Anencephaly


1 2 baby theresa dilemma

1.2 Baby Theresa dilemma...

  • Parental request: allow her organs to be harvested to benefit other newborns.

  • Legal resolution: "Florida law does not allow the removal of organs until the donor is dead."


Moral arguments are arguments with a moral judgment as the conclusion1

Moral arguments are arguments with a moral judgment as the conclusion

The parents:

  • Transplanting Baby Theresa’s organs would benefit other children without harming her.

  • If we can benefit someone, without harming anyone else, we ought to do so.

    --------------------------------------

  • Therefore, we ought to transplant the organs.


Moral arguments are arguments with a moral judgment as the conclusion2

Moral arguments are arguments with a moral judgment as the conclusion

Anonymous ethicists:

  • Transplanting Baby Theresa’s organs would be using her as means for another’s ends.

  • It is wrong to use people as means.

    --------------------------------------

  • Therefore, we ought not transplant the organs.


Moral arguments are arguments with a moral judgment as the conclusion3

Moral arguments are arguments with a moral judgment as the conclusion

One more argument:

  • Taking Baby Theresa's organs would be killing her to save another.

  • It is wrong to kill one person to save another.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • Therefore, we ought not to take her organs for transplantation.


On the baby theresa dilemma

On the Baby Theresa dilemma...

Dr. Norman Fost, director of the University

of Wisconsin's medical ethics program:

  • “The problem is almost entirely one of a slippery slope...”

  • “We have to be careful who we take organs from, because there are a lot more than anencephalic infants out there.”


On the baby theresa dilemma1

On the Baby Theresa dilemma...

Dr. John Fletcher, director of the University

of Virginia's Center for Biomedical Ethics:

  • “There's a refusal to accept the reality of death at work in this...

  • “...and an overvitalistic understanding of personhood, one dependent on biological functions."


On the baby theresa dilemma2

On the Baby Theresa dilemma...

Dr. John Fletcher, director of the University of

Virginia's Center for Biomedical Ethics:

  • “...what makes us human is what goes on upstairs in the brain, not downstairs in the brain.”


1 3 conjoined twins

1.3 Conjoined Twins

  • Siamese Twins

  • Chang and Eng

  • Born in 1811

  • Travelled with the circus

  • Married two sisters

  • Fathered 21 children

  • Died in 1874


1 3 jodie and mary

1:3 Jodie and Mary


Jodie and mary

Jodie and Mary

  • Pro-separation:

  • Separating the twins will save the one; otherwise both will die.

  • When it's a choice between saving one of two people or letting both die, we should save the one.

    ----------------------------------------------------------

  • :. The twins should be separated.


Jodie and mary1

Jodie and Mary

  • Anti-separation:

  • Mary is an innocent human being and the separation will kill her.

  • It's wrong to kill an innocent human being.

    -------------------------------------------

  • :. The twins shouldn't be separated.


1 4 the latimer case

1.4 The Latimer Case


Mercy or murder

Mercy or Murder?

  • 12 year old Tracy Latimer, killed by her father in 1993

  • Quadriplegic and severely mentally disabled, she functioned at the level of a three-month old and was in constant pain…


1 4 the latimer case1

1.4 The Latimer Case

  • Argument against Latimer’s action:

  • Killing Tracy was discrimination against the handicapped.

  • It is wrong to discriminate against the handicapped.

    --------------------------------------

  • :. Tracy's father did wrong: he shouldn't have killed her.


1 4 the latimer case2

1.4 The Latimer Case

  • Rachels’ response:

  • Discrimination against the handicapped?

  • It’s discrimination only if there is no good reason for the different treatment....


1 4 the latimer case3

1.4 The Latimer Case

  • Euthanizing Tracy was "opening the doors to other people to decide who should live and who should die."

  • It is wrong to do things which would open the doors...

  • ------------------------------------------------------

  • :. Euthanizing Tracy was wrong and shouldn't have been done.


1 5 reason and impartiality

1.5 Reason and Impartiality

  • Moral judgments must be backed by good reasons.

  • Morality requires the impartial consideration of each individual’s interests.


1 5 reason and impartiality1

1.5 Reason and Impartiality

  • We describe the case: the way the world is

  • We append a moral principle

    ------------------------------------------

  • We conclude based on the interplay


Impartiality and emotion

Impartiality...and emotion...


Impartiality and emotion1

Impartiality...and emotion...


Impartiality and emotion2

Impartiality...and emotion...


Impartiality and emotion3

Impartiality...and emotion...


The morally right thing to do

The morally right thing to do...

  • is always whatever there are the best reasons for doing...


Jane addams founder of hull house

Jane Addams,founder of Hull House

  • The essence of immorality is the tendency to make an exception of myself.


1 6 the minimum conception of morality

1.6 The Minimum Conception of Morality

  • The effort to guide one’s conduct by reason...to do what there are the best reasons for doing...

James Rachels


Suicide and euthanasia

Suicide and Euthanasia

  • What is the difference?

  • What good reasons are there in favour?

  • What good reasons are there against? http://exitinternational.net/


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