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Chapter 7: Multiviews. Orthographic Projection is any projection of the feature of an object onto an imaginary plane. The line of sight is perpendicular to the plane of projection.

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Chapter 7 multiviews l.jpg

Chapter 7: Multiviews

Orthographic Projection is any projection of the feature of an object onto an imaginary plane. The line of sight is perpendicular to the plane of projection.

Multiview Projection establishes views of an object upon 2 or more planes of projection by using orthographic projection techniques.


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Multiview Drawings


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  • Views: top, front, right, & left side, rear & bottom

  • Views are aligned.

  • The front view is the primary view.

  • There is always one dimension in common between adjacent views.

  • Third angle projection is the multiview setup used by the U.S.A. (First angle projection is used in Europe).

Multiview View Setup



Front view selection l.jpg

Front View Selection


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  • Top, front & right side views usually can show all the features.

  • Objects can be described with only two views or just one view.

  • The importance of a view is to clearly show the contour of a surface.

  • Avoid hidden features.

    Basic question to always ask when selecting a view: “Can the part be easily manufactured without confusion from the drawing?”

Other View Selection Considerations


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Partial Views features.:

Used when space is limited

Used with symmetrical objects

Partial views are sometimes confusing

View Enlargements

Used when part of a view is too detailed or too small to place dimensions on it

The word VIEW is placed under the enlarged view

Partial Views & View Enlargement


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  • When the line of sight is perpendicular to a circular feature, the feature appears round.

  • When a circle is projected onto an inclined surface, its view is elliptical in shape.

  • A view of a hole is projected as a circle and its hidden view is shown through the part.

Projection of Circles


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Arcs on Inclined Planes


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  • Fillets in multiview, a series of points on the curve establishes the contour on the view. are the rounded inside corners of a cast or forged part.

    • Ease of machining and extra material for stress relief

    • Allow patterns to release more easily from casting or forging

    • Size of the fillets depends on precision of casting method

  • Rounds are rounded outside corners

    • Used to relieve sharp exterior edges

    • Used for the same reasons as fillets in casting & forging

Fillets and Rounds


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Rounded Corners in Multiviews in multiview, a series of points on the curve establishes the contour on the view.

An outside or inside slightly rounded corner of an object is represented in a multiview as a single contour line.


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  • Runout of features that intersect cylindrical shapes is projected from the point of tangency of the intersecting feature.

  • Rectangular-shaped features have a fillet at the runout.

  • Curved (elliptical/round) features contour toward the centerline of the runout.

  • Runouts also exist when a web intersects another feature.

RunoutsThe intersection of features with circular objects are projected in multiview to the extent where one shape runs into the other.


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Line Precedence Sometimes one line will fall on top of another line in a multiview drawing - the drafter will choose the line that is precedent.


Third angle projection commonly used in the u s a l.jpg
Third Angle Projection centerlines.Commonly used in the U.S.A.


First angle projection commonly used in europe l.jpg
First Angle Projection centerlines.Commonly used in Europe


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Demonstrate the Following Procedures for Multiview Drawings centerlines.

Sketching the Layout

Drawing the Layout


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