Biology EOC Review

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# Biology EOC Review - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Biology EOC Review. Table of Contents. Goal 1: Scientific Method Goal 2: The Chemistry of Life Goal 3: Genetics &amp; Heredity Goal 4: Unity &amp; Diversity of Life Goal 5: Ecological Relationships. Goal 1: Experimental Design.

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### Biology EOC Review

• Goal 1: Scientific Method
• Goal 2: The Chemistry of Life
• Goal 3: Genetics & Heredity
• Goal 4: Unity & Diversity of Life
• Goal 5: Ecological Relationships
Goal 1: Experimental Design

Smithers thinks that a special juice will increase the productivity of workers. He creates two groups of 50 workers each and assigns each group the same task (in this case, they\'re supposed to staple a set of papers). Group A is given 1 cup of the special juice to drink while they work. Group B is given 1 cup of water. After an hour, Smithers counts how many stacks of papers each group has made. Group A made 2,113 stacks, Group B made 1,587 stacks.

What is Smithers trying to find out?
• Smithers is trying to find out if drinking the juice will increase the amount of stapling that can be accomplished.
• List 3 variables that would have to be a constant in this experiment.
• Type of juice, amount of juice, types of staplers, etc.
Which variable is the independent variable?
• Juice is the independent variable.
• Which variable is the dependent variable?
• Amount of stacks of papers stapled is the dependent variable.
• Is this experiment valid? Explain?
• This appears to be a valid experiment. There is a good sample size, it is controlled and it tests a single variable.
Experimental Design
• Lisa is working on a science project. Her task is to answer the question: "Does Rogooti (which is a commercial hair product) affect the speed of hair growth". She uses her family members for this experiment and measures each person’s hair growth each day for a week. Lisa has Bart use 10 mL of the product twice a day and his hair grows 9 cm. Lisa has Homer use 20 mL of the product once a day and his hair grows 2 cm. Lisa has her sister Maggy use 5 mL of the product 4 times a day and her hair grows 12 cm.
• This is an example of an experiment that is not valid.

a. Describe 3 reasons why this experiment is not valid.

• Different volumes used, sample size is small, amount of times used are all different.
• b. Describe how you would change this experiment to make it valid.
• Use the same amount of product on every subject. Increase the number of subjects. Give it the same number of times each day.
Experimental Design
• An experiment was performed to determine how much fertilizer was needed to produce the most pumpkins on the vine.
What is the problem?
• Amount of fertilizer needed.
• What is the independent variable?
• Amount of fertilizer given.
• What is/are the dependent variables?
• Amount of pumpkins produced.
• What were/are the constant(s)?
• Type of seed, water, sun, soil type.
What is the control and why?
• The plants that had no fertilizer because it would show the effect of fertilizer.
• How much fertilizer would you use to grow the most pumpkins?
• 200 grams
Experimental Design
• A test was conducted to determine the highest possible soda geyser when placing Mentos into the soda.
• Trying to determine the # of Mentos it takes to create a geyser in diet soda. How many Mentos does it take to make the tallest geyser?
• What is the independent variable?
• Number of Mentos
• What is/are the dependant variable(s)?
• Height of geyser.
• What were/are the constant(s)?
• Type of soda, amount of soda, temperature of surroundings, temperature of beverage, day the Mentos were dropped.
What is the control and why?
• No Mentos in Soda A. It would show that the geyser was the result of Mentos.
• Using the information above, would you drop 9 Mentos into the diet soda? Explain why or why not.
• No…..9 Mentos produced the same result as 6 Mentos. It would not make a higher geyser.
Goal 2: Chemistry of Life
• What is an organic compound?
• An organic compound has carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen. Organic biomolecules are proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.
• What is an inorganic compound?
• Any compound that does not contain carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen.
CARBOHYDRATES
• Subunits
• monosaccharides are the monomers
• Function
• energy storage – source of quick energy
• Contains which elements out of CHNOPS?
• CHO
• Examples
• Glucose, Sucrose, Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose, Chitin
LIPIDS
• Subunits
• triglycerides contain 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acid chains; unsaturated fats have C=C double bonds; saturated fats do not
• Function
• Energy storage; insulation
• Contains which elements out of CHNOPS?
• CHO
• Examples
• Fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids
PROTEINS
• Subunits
• amino acids build polypeptide chains; proteins are made of one or more polypeptide chains
• Function
• proteins form structure (hair, skin,nails, hemoglobin) and also function as enzymes
• Contains which elements out of CHNOPS?
• CHNOS
• Examples
• Enzymes such as amylase, sucrase, lactase; Structure such as keratin, hemoglobin
NUCLEIC ACIDS
• Subunits
• nucleotides (sugar, phosphate and nitrogen base)
• Function
• carry instructions for the genetic code
• Contains which elements out of CHNOPS?
• CHNOP
• Examples
• DNA, RNA
Explain the function of the following:
• Starch
• plant polysaccharide; stored energy
• Cellulose
• plant polysaccharide that forms cell fibers
• Insulin
• hormone that changes blood glucose to glycogen to be stored in the liver
• Glycogen
• polysaccharide in animal cells
• Enzymes
• proteins which act as catalysts in living systems
Glucose
• monosaccharide sugar; reactant in cellular respiration to produce ATP; product of photosynthesis
• Hemoglobin
• protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen
• Fats
• stored form of energy in animals; insulation
• DNA
• nucleic acid in chromatin; contains hereditary info in the sequence of nucleotides
• RNA
• ribonucleic acid made as a transcript of DNA to code for a specific protein
Match the test with the organic molecule
• Test for Lipids
• translucent spot with oil on brown paper
• Test for Simple Sugars
• Benedict’s test (turquoise blue solution turns orange when heated in the presence of glucose)
• Test for Proteins
• Biuret test turns purple in the presence of protein
• Test for Starches
• Starch turns blue-black with iodine
List the function and describe the structure of the following organelles:
• Nucleus
• Spherical structure that contains chromatin (DNA); therefore the control center of the cell
• Plasma membrane
• Phospholipid bilayer that surrounds the cell; it is selectively permeable
• Cell wall
• Rigid structure which surrounds a plant cell or bacteria or fungi cell (as well as some protists!)
Mitochondria
• Oval structure with highly folded inner membrane; cellular respiration occurs here to produce ATP
• Vacuoles
• Membrane bound organelles that act as storage for food or water. Water vacuoles in plant cells are large and maintain the turgor pressure for the cell.
• Chloroplast
• Membranous organelle where photosynthesis occurs.
• Ribosomes
• Nonmembranous organelle where protein synthesis occurs both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Explain how a compound light microscope works.
• Magnification through a series of lenses.
• Draw the way a lowercase letter “e “ would look under a microscope:
• Upside down and backwards.
• How do you determine total magnification?
• Ocular lens x Objective lens

e

List the hierarchy of cell organization from largest to smallest below
• Organism, organ system, organ, tissue, cell, organelle.
• How is the structure of the cell related to its function? Give 2 examples with drawings.
• A nerve cell has long fibers to communicate with other nerve cells. A sperm cell has a tail to swim toward the egg.

What is the importance of chemical signals between cells? Give one example.

• This allows cells to communicate with each other, cellular proteins control what enters and leaves the cell.
• Example: Carrier proteins, blood type proteins; antigen-antibody reactions.
What is the purpose of receptor proteins?
• Receptor proteins will receive a molecule and send a chemical message or allow the molecule to enter the cell.
• What is the purpose of hormones?
• Hormones are chemical signals that regulate certain pathways for maintenance of homeostasis.
• Prokaryotic cells (Bacteria) have no organized nucleus or membrane bound organelles. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
• Compare and contrast plant cells and animal cells.
• Plant cells have a cell wall, large water vacuoles and chloroplasts. Animal cells do not have cell walls, their vacuoles are small and they do not have chloroplasts.
List 5 characteristics of living things.
• Organization
• Reproduction
• Growth and Development
• Respond to a Stimulus
• Maintain Homeostasis
What is homeostasis?
• Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a balance.
• What 4 things need to be maintained when maintaining homeostasis?
• Temperature, water, pH and nutrients.
What is salinity?
• Measure of the salt concentration in water.
• How do cells maintain homeostasis?
• Cells maintain homeostasis with a selectively permeable membrane.
Explain why water is important to cells.
• Water makes up about 75 to 90% of cell mass. It is a good solvent and a good temperature regulator as well as transport agent.
Define
• Active transport
• Ability to move molecules against a concentration gradient
• Passive transport
• Simple diffusion; movement of molecules with their concentration gradient (from high to low concentration)
• Diffusion
• Movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
• Osmosis
• Diffusion of water
• Semi-permeable membranes
• AKA plasma membranes; do not allow everything to filter through
On the line above the arrow, label osmosis or diffusion. To the right of the arrow, draw the end result.

diffusion

osmosis

osmosis

Changes in osmotic pressure
• Which direction will the water move?

The water will move to from the right side of the tube to the left side of the tube. Water diffuses from areas of high concentration of water to areas of low concentration of water. The water level on the left side of the u tube will go up.

What is the main source of energy for all cells?
• Glucose produced during photosynthesis
• How do cells store and use energy (hint- Adenosine…….)
What organic molecule is an enzyme?
• Enzymes are proteins
• What is the function of an enzyme?
• Acts as a catalyst in a biochemical reaction
• Explain the process of an enzyme binding to the active site of a substrate molecule.
• Enzyme + Substrate → Enzyme-Substrate Complex → Enzyme + Product(s)
• The active site is specific for its substrate. There are two models (lock-and-key and induced fit). The active site puts the reactant(s) in formation for the proper chemical reaction.
How do temperature and pH affect enzymes?
• Each enzyme has an optimum temperature and pH that allow it to be most active. Temperature will generally speed enzyme action until it denatures the enzyme protein. pH changes beyond optimum will modify bonding in the enzyme and cause it to change shape.
• Can an enzyme be reused?
• Yes! The enzyme can be used over and over again.
Is an enzyme specific to a particular job?
• Yes…i.e. sucrase works on sucrose
• Draw an enzyme doing a general job and label the parts.
• See enzyme-substrate complex in your book pg162
Define
• aerobic respiration
• aerobic respiration requires oxygen to be present; it produces 36-38 molecules of ATP utilizing the mitochondria membrane system
• anaerobic respiration
• produces a very small amount of ATP (2); occurs in the absence of oxygen
Write the equation for aerobic respiration
• C6 H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36-38 ATP
• What are the reactants and what are the products of aerobic respiration?
• Reactants: C6H12O6 + 6O2
• Products: 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36-38 ATP
Write the equation for anaerobic respiration:
• C6H12O6→ 2C3H6O3 + 2 ATP
• Glucose → Lactic Acid + Energy
• What are the reactants and what are the products of anaerobic respiration?
• Reactants: C6H12O6
• Products: 2C3H6O3 + 2 ATP
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
• 6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2
• What are the reactants of photosynthesis?
• 6CO2 + 6H2O
• What are the products of photosynthesis?
• C6H12O6 + 6O2
What organisms carry out aerobic respiration?
• All living organisms carry out cellular respiration (even plants) with the exception of a few anaerobic bacteria.
• What organisms carry out photosynthesis?
• Plants that have chlorophyll pigment.
What factors affect the rate of photosynthesis?
• Temperature
• Light
• Chlorophyll presence
• Concentration of the substrate
What factors affect the rate of cellular respiration?
• Temperature
• Enzymes
• Concentration of reactants
Which type of cellular respiration produces the most ATP?
• Aerobic respiration produces about 36 more ATP than anaerobic respiration.
Name and explain the two types of anaerobic respiration.
• Alcoholic fermentation produces a net of 2 ATP from the breakdown of glucose through glycolysis and then pyruvate forms alcohol.
• Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle tissue when oxygen supply is low. It produces lactic acid and 2 ATP.
Goal 3: Genetics & Heredity
• Compare and contrast the structure of DNA with that of RNA.
• DNA is double stranded and has deoxyribose and thymine
• RNA is single stranded and has ribose sugar and uracil
Where is the DNA located within a prokaryotic cell?
• Not within a nucleus…exists as a nucleoid with chromosome and circular plasmids
• Within a eukaryotic cell?
• DNA is in chromosomes within the nucleus
Name the nitrogen bases found in DNA and what they bond to.
• Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine
• A-T & G-C
• Name the nitrogen bases found in RNA and what they bond to.
• Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, and Cytosine
• A-U & G-C
Why is the sequence of nucleotides so important?
• The sequence of bases determines the sequence that amino acids are placed in to make a specific type of polypeptide.
Describe the process of DNA replication.
• DNA replication is semiconservative. The double helix unwinds and exposes nitrogen bases which complementary bases will come in and pair opposite the regular strand. Each new DNA molecule is half the original helix and half new helix.
What is a mutation?
• A mutation occurs when there is a problem with the sequence of nitrogen bases to make any type of protein.
• Point Mutations
• Frame-shift Mutations
Where does DNA replication occur during the cell cycle?
• During the S (synthesis) phase of the cell cycle.
• Why are there hydrogen bonds between each nitrogen base?
• These hydrogen bonds are weak. They are formed easily and given up easily. This allows base pairs to form during replication and transcription.
Describe the process of transcription and where it occurs.
• Transcription occurs in the nucleus. The coding strand of DNA acts as a template for RNA synthesis.
Describe the process of translation and where it occurs.
• Translation occurs at the ribosome of cells. mRNA moves from the nucleus to the ribosome. tRNA carries a specific amino acid to the mRNA on the ribosome. As the amino acids are put in place, they form peptide bonds with each other. The new protein strand leaves the nucleus.
Explain gene expression.
• A gene is a portion of a DNA molecule that codes for one polypeptide chain or one protein.
• Gene expression means that the protein is synthesized so that the character is evident.
Explain cell differentiation.
• Even though all cells in an individual have the same DNA, only certain portions that the cell needs to function will be transcribed so that cells become different in appearance and function from cells of other tissue types.
What are the disadvantages to cell differentiation?
• The advantage of cellular differentiation is that there are special cells for special functions. Nerve cells have long fibers for communication. Blood cells are specialized to carry oxygen.
Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.
• Mitosis is the division of the replicated contents of the nucleus of somatic cells such that new cells formed will be exactly like the parent cell.
• Meiosis is the formation of gametes (egg and sperm) with only half of the chromosome number.
Define
• Diploid
• Complete set of chromosomes; the number of chromosomes in all body cells with the exception of gametes. 2n
• In humans, 46
• Haploid
• Half set of chromosomes; the number of chromosomes in all mature sex cells. n
• In humans, 23
What is crossing over?
• Crossing over is the exchange of genetic information between homologous pairs of chromosomes.
• When does crossing over occur?
• Crossing over occurs during Prophase I of Meiosis I.
What is the benefit of crossing over?
• The benefit of crossing over is to increase variation in the gametes. This helps survival in the population as multiple combinations of alleles occurs with a greater chance that one change in the environment will not eliminate the entire species.
What is the law of independent assortment?
• The gametes will not always contain the same member of the homologous pair of chromosomes.
• http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/independentassortment.html
• How does it increase variation?
• All the gametes are going to be different from each other.
What is nondisjunction?
• Nondisjunction is the failure of homologous chromosome pairs to separate during anaphase I of meiosis. This results in gametes having more or less chromosomes than they are supposed to have.
How does nondisjunction result in variation?
• http://www.biostudio.com/d_%20Meiotic%20Nondisjunction%20Meiosis%20I.htm
Define:
• Dominant
• allele in a pair that is expressed
• Recessive
• allele in a pair that is not expressed unless both alleles are recessive
• Homozygous
• RR or rr, for example; both alleles are the same
• Heterozygous
• Rr, for example; alleles are different
• Genotype
• Representation of the genes….Rr is a genotype
• Phenotype
• The appearance of a genotype (round, green, etc.)
What 2 things is phenotype the result of?
• The phenotype is the result of the genes and the environment.
In a genetics laboratory, two heterozygous tall plants were crossed. If tall is domiannt over short, what are the expected phenotypic results?
• Tt x Tt
• 75% tall and 25% short
If one homozygous short plant is crossed with a heterozygous tall plant, what percentage of the offspring will be short?
• Tt x tt
• 50%
• This individual has trisomy-21 or Down Syndrome.
Explain the characteristics of the following:
• Colorblindness
• sex-linked trait; disorder is more common in males than in females.
• Huntington’s disease
• autosomal dominant trait which is not expressed until 40’s to 50’s.
• Cystic fibrosis
• Autosomal recessive trait.
• Sickle cell
• Autosomal recessive trait; Heterozygote has resistance to malaria.
• Hemophilia
• sex-linked trait with inability to clot blood properly.
Sample incomplete dominance question
• When red and white flowers are crossed, pink flowers are produced. What is expected when two pink flowers cross?
• The phenotypes of the offspring are expected to be 1:2:1 for red:pink:white
Blood type (multiple allele, codominant)
• Mr. Jones has blood type A and Mrs. Jones has blood type AB. What is the probability that they will have a child with blood type A if both of Mr. Jones’ parents were AB?
• AA x AB
• 50%
Is it possible for a male with blood type A to have a child of blood type O with a female whose blood type is B?
• Yes…..if both parents are heterozygous…
• AO x BO
Why are males more likely to express a sex linked trait?
• There is nothing on the y chromosome to be a dominant allele over the recessive allele on the x chromosome. Females have an opportunity to have a dominant trait on the other x chromosome.
• Colorblindness is a sex linked recessive trait. A mother with normal color vision and a color blind father have a color blind daughter. Which of the following statements is correct?

A. All of their daughters will be colorblind.

B. The mother is a carrier of the color blindness gene.

• All of their sons will have normal color vision.
• All of their sons will be color blind.
Sample test cross question
• Black color is dominant over white in rats. In order to determine whether a black rat is homozygous or heterozygous for the color trait, the rat should go through a test or back cross. That means that the black rat would be mated to a
• Heterozygous black rat
• Hybrid white rate

C. White rat.

D. Homozygous black rat

In a pedigree, an open circle indicates that the person is a female and the solid square indicates that the person is male with the trait.
Look at pedigree on question 87.
• What is the genotype of individual I-1?
• Homozygous recessive
• What is the genotype of II-4?
• Heterozygous
• If someone with the genotype similar to II-7 had children with someone with the same genotype as III-3, what are the chances that their children will be affected?
• 100%
What is a polygenic trait?
• A polygenic trait is one where there are several genes for the trait, such as skin color where there is a range of color from very light to very dark.
• aabbcc to AABBCC
• To determine the sequence of the human genome……to possibly offer gene therapy for disease.
How has the human genome project benefited humans?
• Determination of genetic markers for disease; production of human insulin via recombinant DNA in bacteria.
How can DNA technology allow us to:
• A. Identify an individual?
• DNA fingerprint
• B. Identify a person’s parents?
• DNA fingerprint in comparison with parents.
• C. Investigate a crime scene?
• DNA fingerprint of suspect in comparison to sample left at crime scene.

What is an amniocentesis?

• Puncture of the amniotic sac surrounding a fetus to obtain fetal cells in the amniotic fluid. Cells are cultured and a karyotype demonstrates the fetal chromosomes.
What is a transgenic organism and give an example…….
• A transgenic organism is created by recombination of DNA from two different species. An example would be a bacteria cell that has had human insulin DNA inserted into its plasmid.

What is cloning?

• Cloning is making an exact copy of an organism using an insertion of a somatic cell nucleus into the egg cell of the surrogate mother. The resultant zygote will have the same exact genome as the donor of the somatic cell.

What is gel electrophoresis?

• Protein or DNA samples are placed in wells and then subjected to an electric current. The molecules will separate according to their weight and leave characteristic fingerprints across a gel medium.
Question 95 in packet
• Which suspect committed the crime?
• Suspect 3 because the bands match the criminal blood found at the scene of the crime.

What are some ethical implications and dangers of biotechnology?

• Dangers include the creation of organisms which have no natural predator and a potential imbalance in the ecosystem, moral implications of creating clones of humans, release of information about genetic markers for disease to employers or insurance companies.
• Abiogenesis is the same as spontaneous generation. There is really no experimental evidence to support spontaneous generation, or the formation of life from something that is nonliving, other than early observations before technology was available to demonstrate otherwise.
• Biogenesis means life coming from something that is alive. Redi and Pasteur proved biogenesis with the fly experiment with the jars of rotting meat. No flies appeared on the meat that had been covered with net. Air was able to get in but not the flies and no eggs were laid on the meat and no maggots appeared on the meat. Pasteur’s crooked necked flasks demonstrated that microbes in the air were trapped in the curve of the neck of the flask. When the broth came in contact with this area, the broth became cloudy, demonstrating that the microbes had the nutrients to be able to grow and reproduce in the broth.

What did Louis Pasteur contribute to our understanding of the origins of life?

What can we infer from the fossil record?

• Gradual evolution of new species forms. Extinction of some forms. Similarities and differences of ancestral species to recent forms.
• Where do you find the oldest/youngest fossils?
• Oldest forms are going to be in the lowest rock layers of sedimentary rock and the youngest fossils are going to be in the top layers.

What was the Earth’s early atmosphere made up of?

• Water vapor, ammonia, methane and hydrogen gases.

What were the first living organisms to live on earth?

• Anaerobic bacteria
• How did they obtain energy?
• They were heterotrophs….they fed on organic molecules in the ocean.

How did the first living organisms evolve?

• The first life forms may have been prokaryotes that evolved from protocells (large organized structures surrounded by a membrane).

Explain how biochemical similarities support evolution.

• If DNA is the only molecule that passes from generation to generation, the products of DNA (proteins) are going to be similar in organisms that have a common ancestor.

Explain how anatomical similarities support evolution.

• Similarly, common anatomy is coded for by similar sequences of DNA from common ancestors.

Define natural selection.

• This is the theory developed by Darwin and Wallace. Organisms will produce more organisms than can possibly survive, there is a struggle for existence with those organisms best adapted for survival able to survive and reproduce more like themselves. “Survival of the Fittest”

How are variation and natural selection related?

• Variation in the gene pool allows us to understand that within any population some will be better adapted for survival and some less better adapted. The frequency of the genes that code for traits that have a selective advantage will increase in the population.

Describe coevolution and give an example.

• Coevolution is when two different and unrelated organisms both evolve structures which allow them to be mutually successful. An example is insect pollinators and flowers. The insects have mouthparts to collect nectar and carry pollen on their bodies and the flowers produce nectar for the insects.

What is geographic isolation?

• Geographic isolation is when portions of populations become separated via some geographic barrier (river, ocean, canyon, etc.). The separated populations will create independent gene pools and may eventually become different enough genetically that even if reunited with the original population, mating will not occur and a new species has been formed.

What is reproductive isolation?

• Reproductive isolation occurs when populations become increasingly different from each other such that even if organisms previously mated with each other and produced fertile offspring, they are no longer able to do so. Geographic isolation leads to reproductive isolation.

Describe Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection.

• Organisms produce more than can possibly survive.
• Populations tend to be stable.
• There is a struggle for existence. There is variation within populations.
• Survival of the fittest.
• Survivors will reproduce more like themselves and the frequency of the other variants decreases.
• 1. pesticide resistance
• 2. antibiotic resistance
• In both cases, initial use of a pesticide or an antibiotic will kill the weakest in the population. The stronger organisms will survive to reproduce. Eventually the population will be made up of the strongest or most resistant organisms. This is natural selection.
Goal 4: Unity & Diversity
• How does our modern classification system show the evolutionary relationship among organisms?
• Taxonomists consider the genetic makeup of organisms to reveal their evolutionary relationships to other organisms.

Originally, how many kingdoms were there? Why?

• Originally there were two kingdoms….plant and animal…..Organisms were placed in either of these two kingdoms based on general differences.
• KPCOFGS
• Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

Bacteria

• pro/eu auto/heterouni/multi
• Protists
• pro/euauto/heterouni/multi
• Plants
• pro/euauto/hetero uni/multi
• Animals
• pro/eu auto/hetero uni/multi
Dichotomous Key See question 116
• 1a the animal has 8 legs…..Arachnida
• b the animals has 6 legs….Go to 2
• 2a the animal has spots……..Coleoptera
• b the animal has stripes…..Lepisiota
• A = Arachnida B= Coleoptera C= Lepisiota
Question #117
• Which would be the most primitive organism on the cladogram?
• The most primitive organism on the cladogram would be the one ray-finned fish.

What two organisms would have the most similar DNA?

• Crocodiles and birds
• Why did you choose these two organisms?
• They have the most common ancestral branches. On the EOC this would be a multiple choice question.
BACTERIA
• Reproduction
• Usually asexual (binary fission), however may reproduce sexually by exchange of DNA.
• How they Eat
• Varies with the species….Some are decomposers, some are autotrophic (make their own food), some are heterotrophic (rely on others for food).
• How they regulate their internal environment
• Bacteria are single celled organisms and are subject to environmental conditions. They do produce endospores when environmental conditions are poor (temperature, chemicals, water) that allow them to survive until the environmental conditions improve. Metabolism is controlled by enzymes. Most bacteria are aerobic but some are anaerobic.
PROTISTS (protozoans like amoeba and paramecium, sporozoans like Malaria, plant-like protists like algae and Euglena)
• Reproduction
• May reproduce both asexually and sexually. Algae demonstrate alternation of generations between sporophyte and gametophyte generations. Parasitic protists (like malaria Plasmodium) have advanced reproductive capabilities within their host.
• How they eat
• Some are heterotrophic, some are autotrophic and some are parasitic. They are also some protists that act as decomposers (slime molds, water molds, downy mildews).
• How they regulate their internal environment
• Protists are more advanced than bacteria in this regard….Paramecia have mechanisms to balance water (contractile vacuole). Photosynthetic protists need to be able to seek light.
NONVASCULAR PLANTS (MOSSES)
• Reproduction
• Moss plants reproduce in an alternation of generations. The sporophyte generation produces spores which germinate to produce gametophytes which then produce gametes. Fertilization of a gamete produces a zygote which will develop into a sporophyte.
• How they eat
• Moss plants are nonvascular plants and obtain water by diffusion. This also limits their size. Moss plants are photosynthetic and therefore they make their own food.
• HOW THEY REGULATE THEIR INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
• Moss plants do have stomates to regulate water loss and gas exchange.
GYMNOSPERMS (pine trees, juniper trees)
• HOW THEY REPRODUCE
• Pine trees have male pollen cones and female cones. The pollen is airborne and will stick on the sticky female cones. Seeds of conifers develop at the base of each woody scale of female cones and have wings to drift away from the parent plant once the cone opens. There is no fruit covering the seed and thus gymnosperms are “naked seed” plants.
• HOW THEY EAT
• Gymnosperms are photosynthetic plants and thus they make their own food.
• HOW THEY REGULATE THEIR INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
• The shape of the tree helps the tree to shed snow. The leaves are needle-shaped and waxy so that they do not lose water from winter drying. The leaves are evergreen so that they can carry on photosynthesis whenever possible during the year...
ANGIOSPERMS
• REPRODUCTION
• Produce flowers and fruits. Angiosperms have seeds covered with some type of fleshy ovary. Double fertilization produces an embryo plus a food source within the seed. Pollination strategies attract insect/bird pollinators. Seed dispersal techniques spread seeds for germination away from the parent plant.
• HOW THEY EAT
• Angiosperms are plants and therefore obtain their food via photosynthesis. They are vascular plants and therefore can absorb water and nutrients via roots in the soil.
• REGULATION OF INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
• Stomates control water loss from the leaves via transpiration. Plant hormones control flowering response and bending of stems towards light by differential growth of the stem.

Explain the feeding adaptations of animals.

• Animals are adapted to be herbivores, carnivores or omnivores. Teeth structure, mouth parts, digestive enzymes and perhaps symbiotic gut organisms to aid in digestion will be a part of adaptations to be successful feeders.

What are the reproductive adaptations that offered the most success to animals?

• Behavioral adaptations for mate recognition, increased parental care for young, balance of amount of eggs/sperm produced with success of fertilization. Greater protection and nutrition of developing egg….amniote egg.

What are the reproductive adaptations that offer the most success to plants?

• Pollination coevolution, protected seed in angiosperms, techniques for seed dispersal, evolution of flowering plants. Pollen tube fertilization process in angiosperms.

Are viruses living or nonliving? Explain.

• As humans, we like to classify things because it helps us understand the physical world. Viruses must have a host cell to live and reproduce. Outside of the host cell, viruses are pieces of genetic molecules that can do nothing by themselves. Viruses are right on the border between living and nonliving. Some biologists currently see the virus as a nonliving infectious particle. Other biologists disagree and suggest they are alive because of what happens inside the host cell.

Virus

Virus

Bacteria

Virus

• How can someone get:
• Influenza virus/bacteria?
• HIV virus/bacteria?
• Streptococcus virus/bacteria?
• Small Pox virus/bacteria?

Compare and contrast mimicry and camouflage.

• Camouflage and mimicry are adaptations some animals use as protection from predators. An animal that uses camouflage looks like things in its environment. It might look like a leaf, a twig, or a rock. Animals that use mimicry use colors and markings to look like another animal.

How do each of the following help plants to survive?

• Phototropism
• allows plants to grow towards light to capture sunlight for photosynthesis.
• Gravitropism
• allows plants to have roots growing downward to seek water.
• Thigmotropism
• allows plants to grow attached to something they contact for support of stems to seek sunlight for photosynthesis.

What are some adaptations that allow plants to survive on land as compared to water?

• Angiosperms have fertilization via pollen tubes to reach ovum and so sperm do not need to have water to swim in. Plants also have vascular tissues which transport water from one part of the plant to another. Plants also have a waxy cuticle on leaves to prevent drying out.

What are some adaptations that allow animals to survive on land as compared to water?

• Amniote egg with a shell protects developing embryo with a food source and fluid. Lung structures for gas exchange as opposed to gills. Protective keratin on skin to prevent drying out.

Describe how genetics and environment affect:

• Malnutrition (both obesity and undernourishment)
• Genetics may determine metabolism tendency. Level of absorption of nutrients may be genetically determined. Free will and behavior may control eating tendencies.
• Diabetes
• Genetics may increase tendency toward inability of cells to recognize or produce insulin. Dietary behavior may influence metabolism. Pancreatic viruses may decrease ability of the pancreas to produce insulin.
• Lung cancer
• May inherit tendency toward lung cancer. Environmental influence may be tars from cigarette smoking, exposure to secondary smoke, exposure to asbestos.
Skin cancer
• Decreased melanin production is genetically determined. Environmental would be exposure of skin to UV light which would act as a mutagen.
• PKU
• Patients inherit recessive gene for PKU. Exposure to phenylalanine in diet is environmental.
• Vitamin D
• Skin will produce vitamin D with exposure to sunlight. A decreased exposure to sunlight will decrease level of vitamin D produced.
• Folic Acid
• Helps prevent neural tube defects in embryos.

Describe what causes:

• Mercury poisoning
• Mercury poisoning can be caused by any number of methods of exposure. Amalgam dental fillings are a main cause, other causes are eating fish that have been exposed to mercury in the environment, industrial and work place exposures such as those in the paint industry, even in the hospital (and home) setting poses a potential threat to mercury poisoning because of the mercury in thermometers, dropping or somehow breaking a single thermometer is a very hazardous situation even without touching the mercury because of the vapors produced by the mercury. Some other sources of mercury are cosmetics. There have been several cases of mercury poisoning in the south western states by a company that sold a beauty cream with "calomel" listed as an ingredient. Calomel is mercurous chloride (HgCl2). This product had mercury levels around 10%.
• Lead poisoning is usually caused by months or years of exposure to small amounts of lead at home, work, or day care. It can also happen very quickly with exposure to high concentrations. The most common source of lead exposure for children is lead-based paint and dust and soil that are contaminated by it.

What are T cells?

• The T cells are specialized white blood cells (lymphocytes) who act like soldiers to search out and destroy the targeted invaders (viruses and bacteria)

What are B cells?

• B cells are a type of white blood cell (called a b-lymphocyte) that produce antibodies. Antibodies react with antigens (virus particles or bacterial cells).

How are vaccines used to keep people healthy?

• A vaccine is a substance consisting of weakened, dead or incomplete portions of pathogens or antigens that when injected into the body cause an immune response. Vaccines produce immunity because they prompt the body to react as if it were naturally infected.

Define the following innate behaviors:

• Phototaxis
• Movement of a cell or organism towards (positive phototaxis) or away from a source of light (negative phototaxis).
• Migration
• Seasonal movement to an area for breeding.
• Hibernation
• Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in animals, characterized by lower body temperature, slower breathing, and lower metabolic rate. Hibernating animals conserve energy, especially during winter when food is short, tapping energy reserves, body fat, at a slow rate.
• Estivation
• A temporary state of inactivity during a time that the animal is usually active. An example of estivation may be snails that go into a dormant state in summer months if it is too hot or too dry.
• Instinct (suckling)
• An instinct is a complex pattern of innate behavior. Instinctive behavior begins when the animal recognizes a stimulus and continues until all parts of the behavior have been performed.

Define the following learned behaviors

• Imprinting
• An animal learns the characteristics of its parent. Lorenz demonstrated how incubator-hatched geese would imprint on the first suitable moving stimulus they saw within what he called a "critical period" between 13-16 hours shortly after hatching.
• Conditioning
• Classical Conditioning is the type of learning made famous by Pavlov\'s experiments with dogs. The gist of the experiment is this: Pavlov presented dogs with food, and measured their salivary response (how much they drooled). Then he began ringing a bell just before presenting the food. At first, the dogs did not begin salivating until the food was presented. After a while, however, the dogs began to salivate when the sound of the bell was presented. They learned to associate the sound of the bell with the presentation of the food. As far as their immediate physiological responses were concerned, the sound of the bell became equivalent to the presentation of the food.
• Habituation
• a reduction in a previously-displayed response when no reward or punishment follows
• Trial and error
• A person learns by trial and error if he occasionally tries out new strategies, rejecting choices that are erroneous in the sense that they do not lead to higher payoffs.

Define the following social behaviors:

• Courtship
• Animal activity that results in mating and reproduction. Courtship may simply involve a few chemical, visual, or auditory stimuli, or it may be a highly complex series of acts by two or more individuals using several modes of communication.
• Communication
• responding to a stimulus via sight, smell, hearing, electrocommunication.
• Territoriality
• Territoriality is a type of intraspecific or interspecific competition that results from the behavioral exclusion of others from a specific space that is defended as territory. This well-defined behavior is exhibited through songs and calls, intimidation behavior, attack and chase, and marking with scents. The benefits would be nutritional or reproductive.

Explain how certain animal behaviors such as courtship and other behaviors may have evolved.

• Evolution of animal behaviors was probably because the behavior gave a selective advantage for the animal to survive.
Goal 5: Ecological Relationships
• Explain the difference between biotic and abiotic factors.
• Biotic factors are the living factors in the ecosystem (predators, prey, all organisms of the food chain or web).

How do limiting factors affect carrying capacity?

• A population will continue to grow until the limiting factor in the lowest amount runs out. (space, food supply, etc.)

Define these types of symbiotic relationships:

• Mutualism
• Both organisms benefit
• Commensalism
• One benefits and the other is not affected
• Parasitism
• One benefits and the other is harmed
• Predator-Prey
• One benefits and the other is consumed
• Competition
• Struggle for existence means that organisms will compete for space, mates, food. Those that are best adapted will survive to reproduce more like themselves.

Define and give an example of:

• Density dependent limiting factor
• A limiting factor that is dependent upon the size of the population (disease, food supply)
• Density independent limiting factor
• A limiting factor that will occur regardless of the size of the population (weather, natural disasters)

What is carrying capacity?

• Carrying capacity is the top limit of what an ecosystem can support due to limiting factors.

Describe the carbon cycle.

• Photosynthesis produces organic carbon as glucose. All organisms consume glucose and convert it to carbon dioxide in cellular respiration. Carbon dioxide is absorbed by plants during photosynthesis.

How can humans influence cycling with:

• Deforestation
• Deforestation is a decrease in the amount of trees in the forests due to cutting, fires, etc. This will decrease the amount of CO2 absorbed.
• Factories
• Factories produce carbon waste and CO2 which would be added to the atmosphere.
• Producers who photosynthesize take the sun’s energy and convert it to chemical bond energy in glucose. Consumers will consume and break out the chemical bond energy via cellular respiration.

What role do decomposers play in the environment?

• Decomposers such as bacteria and fungi will break down the carbon-based organic molecules and return them to the soil. Plants will use them.

What is a trophic level?

• A trophic level is a feeding level in a food web. Producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers are all trophic levels.

What is a food chain?

• A food chain shows one line of feeding relationship from
• Producer  Primary Consumer  Secondary Consumer

What happens to energy in an ecosystem?

• Energy is initially in the form of light energy from the sun which is changed to chemical bond energy during photosynthesis. It is then released as heat energy at the different trophic levels as it is consumed.

What happens to nutrients in an ecosystem (biomass)?

• The number of nutrients or biomass decreases as one moves up the trophic levels in a pyramid.

What happens to numbers of organisms in an ecosystem?

• The numbers of organisms decrease as you move up the trophic levels. Producers have the largest number and the secondary consumers have the lowest number.

How much energy is passed from one trophic level to the next in an ecosystem? What happens to the rest?

• As one moves up the energy pyramid, only 10% of the energy of the previous trophic level is available to the next level. 90% of it is lost as heat to the environment.

What is a food web?

• A food web shows all the possible feeding relationships in a community.

How has an increased human population impacted acid rain production, habitat destruction and the introduction of non-native (exotic) species?

• An increased human population has increased acid rain production, habitat destruction and introduction of exotic species.

What is global warming? What causes it?

• Global warming is an increase in the climate’s average temperature. This may be a natural cycle or a result of increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere or a combination of both.

What are the possible effects of global warming?

• Loss of habitat, raise in ocean levels from melting ice flows, effect of temperature as an abiotic factor.
• More efficient fuel usage, better engineering of cars, decreased factory emissions. Hybrid vehicles or electric cars.

What are some factors that influence birth/death rates in the human population?

• Increase in birth rates due to lack of birth control procedures and better prenatal care, decrease in death rates due to longer survival with better medical care.

What effects would the following have on the environment?

• Human population size?
• Human population density?
• Resource use?
• Pesticide use?

If all of these were increased then it would have a negative impact on natural resources in the environment.

What effect can a buildup of pesticides have on the environment over a long term? (bioaccumulation or bioamplification)

• The top level food chain members would be damaged as these chemical increase in concentration in tissues as you move up the food chain.

What effect can pesticides have on organisms they weren’t intended to affect?

• They may be toxic or cause mutagenic effects in other organisms.
• Pesticide resistance means that the pest will survive. In any population of pests some will be resistant. They will survive and reproduce more like themselves and then the pesticide will be useless on that population.

What are some biologic alternatives to chemical pesticides? What are the pros and cons?

• Biologic control with natural predators. It may be more of an expense and it may also throw off the ecosystem balance by introduction of a predator.

What is DDT and what is its effect on the ecosystem?

• Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane
• In 1962, Silent Spring by American biologist Rachel Carson was published. The book catalogued the environmental impacts of the indiscriminate spraying of DDT in the US and questioned the logic of releasing large amounts of chemicals into the environment without fully understanding their effects on ecology or human health. The book suggested that DDT and other pesticides may cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly birds.
System Functions
• Body covering (skin)
• protection, temperature regulation (sweating), vitamin D production
• Cardiovascular
• Moves blood through the body as a transport agent for nutrients and oxygen as well as wastes.
• Digestive
• Breaks down food and absorbs nutrients. Food is used for energy production.
• Endocrine
• Produces hormones that regulate body chemistry.
• Excretory
• Regulates water level and rids the body of nitrogenous waste.
• Immune
• Produces antibodies and lymphocytes to fight against disease.

Nervous

• Helps body respond to stimuli.
• Muscular
• Movement – both voluntary and involuntary.
• Reproductive
• Perpetuation of the species!
• Respiratory
• Brings in oxygen for cellular respiration and removes carbon dioxide.
• Skeletal
• Bony structures for support, protection and movement. Red bone marrow makes new red blood cells.
Biologists
• Robert Hooke – discovered and named the cell with crude microscope
• Anton van Leeuwenhoek - saw “wee little beasties” living cells for the first time
• Gregor Mendel – is the father of genetics – discovered the basic patterns of inheritance in pea plants
• Charles Darwin – is the father of evolution theory – proposed that organisms that are most fit or best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive – called Natural Selection
• James Watson and Francis Crick – discovered the double helix structure of DNA by examining an x-ray made by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins
• Charles Drew – associated with our understanding of the ABO blood groups and transfusion
• Carolus Linnaeus – binomial nomenclature and classification of organisms
• Rachel Carson – wrote “Silent Spring” bringing to public attention the dangers of pesticides particularly DDT – this toxin bioaccumulates in the bodies of top consumers
• Jane Goodall – studied chimpanzee behavior
• Louis Pasteur – helped disprove abiogenesis or spontaneous generation by creating a s-neck flask and showing that microorganisms spoil food