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Women Physicians Congress. A Profile & History of Women in Medicine. August 2011. Women in Medicine. The number of female physicians in medicine has been steadily increasing Women physicians are in leadership positions throughout the profession and organized medicine

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Women Physicians Congress

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Women physicians congress

Women Physicians Congress

A Profile & History of

Women in Medicine

August 2011


Women in medicine

Women in Medicine

  • The number of female physicians in medicine has been steadily increasing

  • Women physicians are in leadership positions throughout the profession and organized medicine

  • The AMA has a dedicated Women Physicians Congress (WPC) that represents more than 67,000 women physicians and medical students


Profile of women in medicine

Profile of Women in Medicine

  • In 2009, nearly 30% of all physicians were women, & 45% of all residents/fellows were women

  • More than 60% of female physicians are in 6 specialties: Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Family Medicine, Obstetrics/Gynecology, Psychiatry & Anesthesiology

  • Female physicians represent 27.4% of physicians in medical teaching, 20.6% in administration & 22.3% in research

    Physician Characteristics and Distribution in the US, 2011 Edition


Profile of women in medicine1

Profile of Women in Medicine

  • Between 1980 and 2009, the number of female physicians increased 430%

  • Since 1975, the number of female physicians has grown six-fold, from 35,626 to 287,683 in 2009.

  • 54% of female physicians are under 45 years of age

    Physician Characteristics and Distribution in the US, 2011 Edition


Women in medicine1

Women in Medicine

The progress of women in

medicine is a long and continuing

journey…

There are many pioneering

women physicians to thank, and

many accomplishments to

celebrate.


Women in medicine a history

Women in Medicine: A History

1847Harriet Hunt is the first woman to apply to Harvard Medical School. Her application is rejected.

1849Elizabeth Blackwell becomes the first woman to receive a US medical degree, from Geneva Medical College in New York.


Women in medicine a history1

Women in Medicine: A History

1864Rebecca Lee Crumpler, MD becomes the first African-American woman to receive an MD.

1866Ann Preston, MD, is appointed the first female dean of the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania.

1868Elizabeth Blackwell, MD establishes the Women’s Medical College, affiliated with her New York Infirmary.


Women in medicine a history2

Women in Medicine: A History

1870 University of Michigan becomes the first state medical school to formally admit women.

1876Sarah Hackett Stevenson, MD, becomes the first woman physician to join the AMA.

1886Mary Harris Thompson, MD, founder of the Hospital for Women and Children in Chicago, is the first woman to present a scientific paper at an AMA Annual Meeting and the first woman to be published in JAMA.


Women in medicine a history3

Women in Medicine: A History

1889Susan La Flesche Picotte, MD, graduates and becomes the first Native American woman to receive a medical degree in the US.

1897Eliza Ann Grier, MD, an emancipated slave, becomes the first African American woman licensed to practice medicine in Georgia.


Women in medicine a history4

Women in Medicine: A History

By the beginning of the 20th century, the number

of women physicians in the US had increased to

more than 7,000, up from about 200 in 1860.

Nevertheless, women remained a minority in

medicine throughout the 1900s, and the number

and percentage of women was up and down...

4% of graduates in 1905

12% in 1949

7% in 1965


Women in medicine a history5

Women in Medicine: A History

1915The Medical Women’s National Association (now known as the American Medical Women’s Association) was founded by Bertha Van Hoosen, MD.

1919Alice Conklin, MD, serves as a delegate from the Illinois State Medical Society, the first female delegate after the 1901 formation of the AMA House of Delegates.


Women in medicine a history6

Women in Medicine: A History

1943Margaret Craighill, MD, becomes the first woman physician to join the US Military.

1945Harvard Medical School admits women for the first time.

1947Gerty Cori, MD, is the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, sharing the prize with her husband, also an MD.


Women in medicine a history7

Women in Medicine: A History

1952 Virginia Apgar, MD, the first woman full professor at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, develops the Apgar Score, the first standardized test used to evaluate newborns.

1960 Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, PA is the last medical school to admit female students.

1969 Louise C. Gloeckner, MD, of Pennsylvania, is elected AMA vice president, becoming the highest ranking woman physician in the organization to date.


Women in medicine a history8

Women in Medicine: A History

In 1970, women still were underrepresented considerably in the medical profession, just under 8% of US physicians. But the percentage of female physicians was beginning its steady increase. Since 1975, the number of female physicians has grown six-fold.


Women in medicine a history9

Women in Medicine: A History

1979AMA establishes the Ad Hoc Committee on Women Physicians to encourage the membership and participation of women physicians throughout organized medicine.

1989Nancy Dickey, MD becomes the first woman elected to the AMA Board of Trustees.

1990Antonia Novello, MD becomes the first woman and first Hispanic to be appointed US Surgeon General.


Women in medicine a history10

Women in Medicine: A History

The 1990s saw a dramatic increase in the influence and activism of women physicians.

  • In 1990, the AMA launched Women in Medicine Month as a national effort.

  • The AMA issued its ground-breaking report on “Gender Disparities in Clinical Decision Making.”

  • The AMA adopted policy reports, authored by the WIM Advisory Panel, on maternity leave, child care, sexual harassment, parental leave, gender neutral language and other issues critical to women in medicine.


Women in medicine a history11

Women in Medicine: A History

1996 The American Medical Women’s Association (AMWA) is granted a voting seat in the AMA House of Delegates. Diana Dell, MD is seated as the first AMWA delegate.

1997 The AMA establishes the Women Physicians Congress (WPC) as an advocacy and networking forum dedicated to women in medicine.

1998 Nancy Dickey, MD is inaugurated as the first female President of the AMA.


Women in medicine a history12

Women in Medicine: A History

2000AMA elects Nancy Nielsen, MD as the first female vice-speaker of the House of Delegates.

2003Dr. Nielsen is elected speaker, the first woman to hold that position in the AMA.

2007 The AMA House of Delegates unanimously votes for Dr. Nielsen to fill the post of President-Elect, the second woman ever elected to the position.


Ama women physicians congress

AMA Women Physicians Congress

The goals of the WPC are to:

  • Increase the number, voice and influence of women physicians

  • Provide a forum for women in medicine through mentoring and leadership development

  • Advance the understanding of women’s health issues


Ama wpc goals continued

AMA-WPC Goals Continued …

  • Monitor trends and emerging issues affecting women in the profession

  • Increase the membership/participation of women in organized medicine

  • Enhance professional options for balancing personal/career responsibilities


What the ama wpc does for you

What the AMA-WPC Does for You

  • Serves as a forum for advocacy on women’s health issues

  • Identifies and addresses your issues throughout the life cycle

  • Sponsors events like September “Women in Medicine Month” & the Physician Mentor Recognition Program


What the ama wpc does for you1

What the AMA-WPC Does for You

  • Distributes timely and relevant information to its members

  • Provides leadership opportunities

    Membership is free & open to all interested physicians and medical students. Email [email protected] for more information.


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