The congruence model
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The Congruence Model. The Congruence Model. The critical first step to successfully lead large-scale organizational change is to understand the dynamics and the performance of the enterprise.

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The Congruence Model

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The congruence model

The Congruence Model


The congruence model1

The Congruence Model

  • The critical first step to successfully lead large-scale organizational change is to understand the dynamics and the performance of the enterprise.

  • The tried and true managerial tricks do not always work. The new, a unique set of problems watched through the old, well-worn filters might leave the real issues undetected.


The congruence model2

The Congruence Model

  • The congruence model is a useful tool that helps leaders fully grasp the interplay of social and technical forces that shape the performance of each organization.

  • It suggests that the starting point for analyzing organizational performance is to first understand the organization as a system.

  • The organization consists of a basic set of elements: input, strategy, output, and the transformation process.


Basic organizational components input

Basic organizational components - Input

  • Three main categories of input:

    • The environment

      • Imposes demands

      • Imposes constraints

      • Provides opportunities

    • Resources

    • History (Ex.: Xerox)


Basic organizational components strategy output

Basic organizational components - Strategy & Output

  • Two levels of strategic questions:

    • Corporate strategy

    • Business strategy

      • Markets

      • Offerings

      • Competitive basis

  • Three levels of output:

    • The total system

    • Units within the system

    • Individuals


Basic organizational components the organizational transformation process

Basic organizational components - The organizational transformation process

  • The heart of the model

  • Four key components of the organization:

    • Work

    • People

    • Formal organizational arrangements

    • Informal organization


The concept of fit

The concept of fit

  • The organization’s performance rests upon the alignment of the components (work, people, formal org., informal org.)

  • The tighter the fit - the greater the congruence, the higher the performance.

  • The interaction between each set of organizational components is more important than the components themselves.

  • Normally, managers only have to do the necessary adjustments, but some situations call for radical, large-scale change. (Ex.: Xerox)


Analyzing the organization s problems

Analyzing the organization’s problems

  • The congruence model gives a conceptual framework to solve the organization’s problems:

    • Identify the symptoms

    • Specify the input

    • Identify the input

    • Identify the problems

    • Describe the organizational components

    • Assess the congruence

    • Generate hypotheses about problem causes

    • Identify the action steps


Using the congruence model

Using the Congruence Model

  • Make sure the new strategy fits the organization’s resources and environment!

  • Be sure the strategy fits the formal structures, systems, and processes!

  • Constantly be on the lookout for inappropriate fit among all the internal components of the organization!


The congruence model

Give practical examples of how the manager can follow the 8 steps mentioned above to solve the organization’s problems!


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