Max v lkel voelkel@fzi de forschungszentrum informatik an der universit t karlsruhe th
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 30

From Documents to Knowledge Models PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 107 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Max Völkel [email protected] Forschungszentrum Informatik an der Universität Karlsruhe (TH). From Documents to Knowledge Models. Personal Knowledge Management. Definition: knowledge cues [Haller]

Download Presentation

From Documents to Knowledge Models

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Max v lkel voelkel@fzi de forschungszentrum informatik an der universit t karlsruhe th

Max [email protected]

Forschungszentrum Informatik an der Universität Karlsruhe (TH)

From Documents to Knowledge Models


Personal knowledge management

Personal Knowledge Management

Definition: knowledge cues [Haller]

  • any kind of symbol, pattern or artefact which evokes some knowledge in a person’s mind, when viewed or used.

  • Knowledge cuescan be stored and retrieved on a computer – while knowledge may or may not.

  • Ok, in fact you store bits (signals)


What is a document

What is a Document?

A team of 50 French researchers discussed …


Definition document

Definition: Document

A team of 50 French researchers could agree on:

  • Document as form

    • Document as a container, which assembles and structures the content to make it easier for the reader to understand it.

  • Document as sign

    • Emphasize argumentative structure of the content.

    • Document can be referenced  acts as a sign for its meaning.

  • Document as medium

    • “Reading contract“ = intention or assumption of the author what will happen with the document.


Document my definition i ii

Document (my definition) I/II

  • A document consists of information atoms.

    • An information atom is the smallest unit of content which can be interpreted without a documents context (but of course requiring background knowledge). For text, these atoms are single words.

  • Packaging – establishes a context

  • Reference-ability – reference to a published document can act as a placeholder for the content expressed within.

  • Process metadata – should be sent along

    • such as authors, audience, goal

Document

Author, audience, goal


Document my definition ii ii

Document (my definition) II/II

  • A document is a knowledge artefact consisting of several layers:

Content Semantics

– content means something.

  • Building upon logical and argumentative structure, the author encodes statements about a domain within the content.

– to convey its content to the reader.

  • Argumentative structures appear on all scales. A typical structure is the “Introduction - Related work – Contribution - Conclusion”-pattern of scientific articles. On smaller scales, patterns like “claim-proof” and “question-answer” are used.

Argumentative Structure

Logical Structure

– can reference smaller parts within a document

  • i.e. paragraphs, headlines, footnotes, citations, and title

Visual Structure

– guides the reader informally

  • type-setting (i.e. bold, italics, different font styles and size), placement of figures, pages – carries additional information

Linearity

– defined order

  • for navigating through all information items


Ted nelson

Ted Nelson

I propose a different document agenda:

I believe we need new electronic documents which are transparent, public, principled, and freed from the traditions of hierarchy and paper.


What do people want

What do people want?

Why?


What is a wiki what s new compared to cms

What is a Wiki? What‘s new compared to CMS?

  • Easy Contribution  shorter time-to-publication

    • Wiki pages can be created and edited by any user quickly and easily

  • Easy Writing

    • Simple text formatting without the need to learn HTML  Wiki Syntax

  • Easy Linking

    • Automatic linking converts written names of pages, images and websites to links

  • Recent Changes

    • See what has happened – Awareness

  • Diff function shows the latest changes

    • Easily check whether changes are ok

  • Fulltext search for page titles and text

  • Backlink function shows which pages link to the current page

    • Find the context of this page

  • Directly link deep into a wiki using readable names

Wikis were the first

deployed, collaborative

hypertext authoring environments

 People want more links


From documents to knowledge models

My definition based on OMG metamodel MOF

What is a Model? Typed entities and typed relations

TypeA2

TypeB2

Type C2

(Meta-)Modelling

TypeA1

TypeC1

TypeB1

Modelling

EntityX

EntityY

Real world from theviewpoint of the individual

ArtifactX

ArtifactY


What is a knowledge model

What is a Knowledge Model?


From documents to knowledge models

From analogue to digital documents

smaller content granularity

more interconnected content

more explicit structures.

 Knowledge models

very small information atoms, such as single words

Richly connected items

explicit semantics for the links.

From Documents to Knowledge Models

Definition

  • A knowledge model is a superset of documents and formal ontologies.

  • Annotated documents, stored together with their annotations, can be seen as a knowledge model.


From documents to knowledge models

context

annotation

source

Item

before

after

target

annotationmember

detail

What is a CDS? Conceptual Data Structures

M. Völkel and H. Haller: Conceptual Data Structures (CDS) - Towards an Ontology for Semi-Formal Articulation of Personal Knowledge In Proc. of the 14th International Conference on Conceptual Structures 2006. Aalborg University - Denmark, July 2006.


What is a cds based knowledge model

What is a CDS-based Knowledge Model?

  • A set of addressable items (text, images, maybe even multimedia elements)

  • Relations between items, classified in four types

    • Source/target:the generic, directed hyperlink link

    • Before/after:ordering relations, linear navigation

    • Context/detail:hierarchical relations, document and concept hierarchies

    • Annotation/annotationMember:annotations, to give the ability to type items and relations, items are used as types  meta-modeling

  • Knowledge models must be able to capture work-in-progress

    • CDS is not strict, you can have cycles, untyped items, paradox ordering, …


Cds a hierarchy of relations

CDS: A Hierarchy of Relations

Legend

Undirected Relation: related/related

informal

Relation Typerelation/inverse

Equivalency: equivalent

Directed Linking: source/target

Annotation: annotation/annotationMember

Order: before/after

Hierarchy: detail/context

Labelled Links:

…/…-inverse

Subclassing: is-a/superclass-of

Taskpriority

Tagging: tag/tagMember

Documentorder

Instantiation: type/instance

formal


Motivation

Motivation


Examples for knowledge models

Engineering

Thinking

Simulation

Req. Engineering

Examples for Knowledge Models

Fiction Writing


How does writing reading works

Writing / Sending

Write down ideas

Group them

Structure them

Add argumentation structures

Add references to literature

Link pieces in a first draft

Add introduction and conclusion

Repeat until coherent flow

Publish document

Reading / Recieving

Visualise the structure graphically

Connect new structures with existing own structures

Mind maps

Mind maps

???

???

Reference Manager

Textprocessing

How does Writing/Reading works?

„Von der Idee zum Text“ [Esselborn 2004]


The tool chains break

The tool chains break

  • Create a new slide show out of three old presentation plus one from your colleague

    • Why not have the content in smaller, more logical chunks?

  • Re-use the motivation part of an old paper for a new one

    • If you find a mis-spelling, why have to fix it twice?

  • Search a stack of paper notes with good ideas

    • Why are those not in your computer?

  • Search email archives to find out what the high-level architecture for the new authentication system is

    • Why not browse your PKM and see the relations?


Technological developments

Technological Developments

  •  accelerated distribution by many orders of magnitude

  •  lower costs

Analog  Digital

Communicationspeed

internet

printing press

cost

written language

time


Cost of communication data transmission is cheap now

Cost of Communication Data transmission is cheap now

  • Total cost of communication to send content to n people:

    | choosing relevant parts of the personal model | +| encoding of model parts in document parts |+| order document parts strictly linear/hierarchical | + n ·(| data transmission || linear reading of the document | +| decoding of model parts from document parts | +| creating a networked model out of model parts | + | integrate new model to existing model | )


Cost of communication where can we save if n is small

Cost of Communication Where can we save, if n is small?

  • Total cost of communication to send content to n people:

    | choosing relevant parts of the personal model | +| encoding of model parts in document parts |+| order document parts strictly linear/hierarchical | + n ·(| data transmission || linear reading of the document | +| decoding of model parts from document parts | +| creating a networked model out of model parts | + | integrate new model to existing model | )


Cost of communication

Cost of Communication

  • Total cost of communication to send content to n people:

    | choosing relevant parts of the personal model | +| encoding of model parts in document parts |+| order document parts strictly linear/hierarchical |+ n ·(| data transmission || linear reading of the document | +| decoding of model parts from document parts | +| creating a networked model out of model parts | + | integrate new model to existing model | )


Current process culture is document centric

Current process – culture is document-centric

Recipient(s)

Sender

Cost


Ideal process what if not documents but knowledge models would be exchanged between people

Ideal process - What if not documents, but knowledge models would be exchanged between people?

Recipient(s)

Sender

Cost


Realistic improved process use both

Realistic (improved) process – use both

Recipient(s)

Sender

Cost


Information management problems solution knowledge models

Under-utilisation of the interlinked nature of information [Oren] fine-granular nature of knowledge models allows for precise and effective linking – and browsing

People have problems in using strict hierarchies [Oren] classification methods like tagging and non-strict taxonomies

Keep the context [Oren]  networked nature of a knowledge model is more suited to represent contextual links than a set of documents

Granularity Represent more than the content of just one document

Information Management Problems  Solution: Knowledge Models


When to use knowledge models

When to use Knowledge Models?

Fixed domain

  • Use domain specific tools & languages

    • Standardised representation formalisms

    • Established data exchange processes

Open domain- or –

Multiple domains

  • Use personal knowledge models

    • Unstructured, semi-structured, semi-formal and formal parts

    • Ad-hoc formalisation

    • Cheaper to create, easier to integrate

  • Use Documents

    • Costly to create

    • Cheap to read  sometimes the best solution

    • Hard to integrate

Myself!

My TeamMy Community

Broad audience


Related work in semantic authoring

Related Work in Semantic Authoring

  • Initial ideas - although that term was not used - can be found already in V. Bush and D. Engelbart

  • ABCDE Format from Anita de Waard

  • Semantically annotated Latex (SALT) by Tudor Groza

  • Systems allowing end-users to construct ontologies out of their linked information objects.

    • L. Ludwig sees redundancy within and among documents as a hurdle to efficient information usage. Traditional notion of a document is replaced by virtual documents, which render parts of the knowledge base as an interactive tree.

    • Bernstein describes TinderBox, a "personal content management assistant", which offers sophisticated HTML generation via templates.

  • Gnowsis system by Sauermann allows to link desktop objects, integrates with wiki

  • iMapping – semantic concept maps by Haller

  • Same direction in the fields of semantic desktop and semantic wiki

  • Semantic Web Content Repository (swecr)


Conclusion

Documents

Document-centered culture is a costly legacy artefact and bottleneck for our society

Personal knowledge models

Superset of documents and ontologies

Integrate with the semantic desktop

Make knowledge worker happier and more productive

Authoring is the bottleneck

We should bring the power of modeling to the end-user

Don‘t break the tool chain

Focus on work-in-progress

Contact:Max Völkel, [email protected]

Thank You very muchfor Your attention

Conclusion


  • Login