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Motivating Employees. Chapter Sixteen. Class Activity. List five criteria (pay, challenge, etc) that would be important to you in your first job after college. Rank them by order of importance. . Motivation.

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Motivating Employees

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Motivating employees l.jpg

Motivating Employees

Chapter Sixteen

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Class Activity

  • List five criteria (pay, challenge, etc) that would be important to you in your first job after college.

  • Rank them by order of importance.

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  • An individual’s willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.

  • Effort—intensity and quality.

  • Need—internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive.

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The Motivation Process









  • Intensity

  • Direction

  • Persistence

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Early Theories of Motivation

  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y

  • Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  • Physiological needs—food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction, and other physical requirements.

  • Safety needs—security and protection from physical and emotional harm, and assurance that physical needs will continue to be met.

  • Social needs—affection, friendship, belongingness, and acceptance.

  • Esteem needs—internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; external factors such as status, recognition, and attention.

  • Self-actualization needs—growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfillment

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (continued….)







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McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y

  • Theory X—assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform.

  • Theory Y—assumption that employees are creative, enjoy work, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction.

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McGregor’s Theory X and Y (continued….)



Theory Y




Theory X


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Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory

  • Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, whereas extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction.

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Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory (continued….)

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Contrasting Views of Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction

Traditional View

Herzberg’s View


Hygiene Factors

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In-Class Activity

  • Visit the “Motivating Employees” discussion board.

  • For four of the posted websites, reply to the post and identify how the early motivational theories influenced the recommendations listed on the website.

  • Be specific and give examples.

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Contemporary Theories of Motivation

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Contemporary Theories of Motivation

  • Three-Needs Theory

  • Goal-Setting Theory

  • Reinforcement Theory

  • Designing Motivating Jobs Theory

  • Equity Theory

  • Expectancy Theory

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Three Needs Theory

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Three-Needs Theory

Three acquired (not innate) needs that are major motives for work.

  • Need for Achievement (nAch)—drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards.

  • Need for Power (nPow)—need to make others behave differently.

  • Need for Affiliation (nAff)—desire for friendly and close relationships.

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Need for Achievement

  • Prefer jobs that provide rapid and unambiguous feedback on their performance.

  • Motivated by the challenge of working at a problem and accepting personal responsibility for success or failure.

  • High achievers avoid what they perceive to be very easy or very difficult tasks.

  • High achievers don’t necessarily make good managers.

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Need for Power and Need for Affiliation

  • Best managers tend to be high in the need for power and low in the need for affiliation.

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Measuring the Three Needs

  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective personality test.

  • Apperception is the process of understanding through linkage with previous experience.

  • In a projective test, patterns of thought, attitudes, and emotional responses are evaluated on the basis of responses to ambiguous test materials.

  • In a TAT, 31 picture cards are used to stimulate stories or descriptions about relationships or social situations.

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Drawbacks of Thematic Apperception Test

  • Lack of a standardized method of administration.

  • Lack of standard norms for interpretation.

  • Race, sex, and social class of examiners and participants influence the stories that are told by participants and the way the stories are interpreted by the examiner.

  • The 31 standard pictures have been criticized for being too gloomy or depressing, and therefore limiting the range of personality characteristics that the test can assess.

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Goal Setting Theory

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Goal-Setting Theory

  • The proposition that specific goals increase performance, and that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals.

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Goal-Setting Theory (continued….)

  • Goals are public

  • Internal locus of

  • control

  • Self-set goals



To Achieving


(Intention to work

toward goal)

Higher performance


Goal achievement





  • Specific

  • Difficult

Self-generated feedback on progress


in Setting

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Reinforcement Theory

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Reinforcement Theory

  • Behavior is a function of its consequences.

  • Reinforcers—any consequence immediately following a response that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated.

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Reinforcement Theory (continued….)

  • People will most likely engage in desired behaviors if they are rewarded for doing so.

  • Those rewards are most effective if they immediately follow a desired behavior.

  • Behavior that isn’t rewarded, or is punished, is less likely to be repeated.

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Designing Motivating Jobs Theory

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Designing Motivating Jobs Theory

  • Job enlargement—horizontal expansion of a job; increase number and variety of tasks performed.

  • Job enrichment—vertical expansion of a job; provide more autonomy, responsibility, and decision-making authority.

  • Job characteristics model—a framework for analyzing and designing jobs that identifies five primary job characteristics, their interrelationships, and their impact on outcomes.

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Five Core Dimensions of the Job Characteristics Model (JCM)

  • Skill variety—degree to which a job requires a variety of activities so that an employee can use a number of different skills and talents.

  • Task identity—degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.

  • Task significance—degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of others.

  • Autonomy—degree to which a job provides substantial independence in scheduling the work and determining the procedures.

  • Feedback—degree to which carrying out work activities results in an individual receiving direct and clear information about his or her performance.

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In-Class Activity

Job Redesign Using the Job Characteristics Model (JCM)

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Job Redesign Using JCM

  • Select a job that you have held (current or previous).

  • Analyze the job looking at the five core dimensions of the JCM. (Low, Medium, High)

  • Based on that analysis, redesign the job using the Guidelines for Job Redesign, exhibit 16-8 on page 402.

  • Email the analysis and redesign to me in a Word document. Subject line: BA200: last name + JCM. Be sure to include your name on the Word document.

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Contemporary Theories of Motivation

  • Three-Needs Theory

  • Goal-Setting Theory

  • Reinforcement Theory

  • Designing Motivating Jobs Theory

  • Equity Theory

  • Expectancy Theory

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Equity Theory

The theory that an employee compares his or her job’s input-outcomes ratio with that of relevant others and then corrects any inequity.

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Typical Actions with Perceived Inequities

  • Distort either their own or others’ inputs or outcomes.

  • Behave in some way to cause others to change their inputs or outcomes.

  • Behave in some way to change their own inputs or outcomes.

  • Choose a different comparison person.

  • Quit the job.

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  • The persons, systems, or selves against which individuals compare themselves.

    • Persons—individuals with similar jobs in the same organization, friends, and professional associates.

    • Systems—organizational pay policies and procedures, and the administration of the system.

    • Selves—past jobs, personal commitments.

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Equity Research Areas

  • Distributive justice

  • Procedural justice

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Increasing Perception of Procedural Justice

  • Openly share information on how allocation decisions are made.

  • Follow consistent and unbiased procedures.

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Expectancy Theory

The theory that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will result in an attractive outcome for the individual.

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Motivating Unique Groups of Workers

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Autonomy in their jobs


Opportunity to learn

Flexible work hours

Good interpersonal relationships

Motivating a Diverse Workforce

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Flexible Working Schedules

  • Compressed workweek—employees work longer hours per day but fewer days per week.

  • Flexible work hours (flextime)—employees are required to work a specific number of hours a week but are free to vary those hours within certain limits.

  • Job sharing—the practice of having two or more people split a full-time job.

  • Telecommuting—Employees work at home and are linked to the workplace through technology.

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Motivating Professionals

  • Strong and long-term commitment to their field of expertise.

  • Updating knowledge is important.

  • Money and promotions tend to rank low on their priority list.

  • Job challenge tends to rank high.

  • Value support.

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Motivating Contingent Workers

  • Temporary not by choice

    • Opportunity to become a permanent employee.

    • Opportunity for training.

    • References.

  • Temporary by choice

    • Opportunity for training.

    • Support.

    • Challenge.

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Designing Appropriate Rewards Programs

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Designing Appropriate Rewards Programs

  • Open-Book Management

  • Employee Recognition Programs

  • Pay-for-Performance Programs

  • Stock Option Programs

  • Login