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Characterisation and Community-based Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources in the Mixed Crop-livestock Farming System in Benin. By Hippolyte Dossa. PhD Project Proposal. Background. Total area: 112,620 km2 Arable land: 15% Human population: 7,0 m (Census 2002).

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slide1

Characterisation and Community-based Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources in the Mixed Crop-livestock Farming System in Benin

By Hippolyte Dossa

PhD Project Proposal

slide3

Total area: 112,620 km2

Arable land: 15%

Human population: 7,0 m (Census 2002)

slide5
Narrow coastal strip that rises to a swampy, forested plateau and then to highlands in the north.
  • Hot and humid climate blankets the entire country

Source:

Akker van der (2000)

slide6
Mainstay: rainfed subsistence agriculture

- 60% human population and 40% GDP

- Major crops: cassava, maize, beans, yams, palm oil

and cotton

  • Average cultivated land per household : 0.4 to 12.7 ha (more than 90% of farms in the south and 80% in the north have land size < 3 ha)
  • Limited off-farm + credit + access to external inputs
  • Land degradation + low agricultural productivity
  • About 40% of rural people below poverty threshold

(CORCEDO, 2001)

slide7
Tsetse flies constraint development production of large animals
  • Steady increases in livestock populations over last ten years
  • Data on poultry?

Data from FAO (2003)

slide9

Ownership and value of livestock among small farmers in Benin

Poverty threshold in rural area = 56, 600 FCFA /adult/p.a.

(IFPRI / LARES, 2001)

threats to livestock diversity
Threats to livestock diversity
  • Livestock important in livelihood strategies of the poor (savings, insurance, security, accumulation & diversification of assets, social & cultural functions)
  • Performance, adaptation & disease resistance of local genetic resources not fully recorded
  • Replacement or indiscriminate crossbreeding>>> genetic erosion (loss of genetic diversity; reduction of adaptive value)
threats to livestock diversity 2
Threats to livestock diversity (2)
  • Opportunities for efficient utilisation of livestock genetic resources for improvement of livelihood are being missed
  • Has the need been recognized to develop appropriate strategies and actions of conservation and utilisation of FAnGR by all stakeholders in Benin?
slide12

Conservation strategies

  • Ex-situ (Cryoconservation, live genebanks)
  • In-situ (on farm)
  • Criteria:

- Uniqueness of breeds, traits

- Economic importance

- Cultural and historical values

- Contribution to agrobiodiversity

  • „The knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities should be used for sustainable use of biological diversity“ (CBD, 1992) Art. 8-10 & 15
  • Characterisation & community-based management AnGR
slide14

Small ruminants are non-pooled household resources

60% of owners are female

Quick source of cash, security and insurance against hardship

Offtakes mainly sold

Religious and social & cultural

functions

slide15
Management system
  • Farm buildings not designed for livestock
slide17
Harsh environmental conditions
      • High temperatures and relative humidities
      • Disease outbreaks
      • Presence of parasites

Peste des Petits Ruminants

(PPR)

Sarcoptic Mange

slide18

Monitoring of animal health: Limited control and

treatment of diseases

  • Price of chemicals drugs
  • Reliance on traditional medicine
existing breeds
Existing breeds

Goats

Sheep

Photo: Inrab

Adapted from Maud (1980) & Meyer (2002)

threats to local breeds
Threats to local breeds
  • No systematic characterisation
  • Indiscriminate crossbreeding
threats to local breeds cont
Threats to local breeds (cont.)
  • Ongoing livestock improvement projects

eg. substitution local goat by French alpin goat in South Benin (Heifer Project October 2003)

www.perso.wanadoo.fr/heifer.france/pays_Benin.htm

market situation

Threats to local breeds (cont.)

Market situation

(Dossa, 2002)

objectives of the study
Objectives of the study
  • Identify & understand smallholder objectives and breeding strategies in livestock production
  • Identify, evaluate and assess traditional knowledge & local practices
  • Develop community –based management strategies & actions using small ruminant as a pilot species
slide26

Conceptual framework

Biophysical data

Climate, Vegetation,

Soil, Geography

Socio-economic data

Population density, Policies,

Infrastructure, Services

Cultural data

Ethnicity, Religion

Crop-livestock interactions

Small ruminant production system

Management practices

(Feeding, health, breeding, marketing)

Animal Genetic Variability

(Phenotypic and genetic variation

within & between populations)

Productivity

(Biological efficiency)

Livelihood Contribution

(Direct & indirect uses, economic efficiency)

Community-based Management Strategies & Actions

research questions and hypotheses
Research questions and hypotheses
  • Question 1: How do small ruminants contribute to the livelihoods of smallholders and to the sustainability of mixed farming systems?
  • Hypothesis 1: Roles and overall productivity of small ruminants vary according to agro-ecological zones and existing communities, due to differences in local knowledge and management practices
research questions and hypotheses cont
Research questions and hypotheses (cont.)
  • Question 2: Under what conditions are farmers most likely to initiate a community-based management of small ruminants genetic resource such as it is able to begin functionning and move into a short-term and sustainable long-term phases?
  • Hypothesis 2: Farmers will develop a shared understanding and networks for reciprocal exchange that permit a sustainable, collective management of small ruminants genetic resources when provided with the necessary learning environments that enable them to share their experiences and viewpoints
study area
Study area
  • Coverage of three AEZ out of eight (north-south)
  • One location per AEZ could be selected on basis of:
    • Predominance of sheep and goats (MAEP-DE, 2002)
    • Accessability
    • Support of INRAB through R&D centres
    • Support of livestock development institutions (PDE)
  • Two villages per location could be selected based on:
    • Farmers organisations
    • Effective village authority system
preliminary study phase
Preliminary study phase
  • Agreement with the INRAB staff on the locations to be
  • surveyed
  • Explorative field visits & meetings with local authorities,
  • community leaders, politicians
  • Collection secondary data through
  • - Interpretation & analysis maps and satellites images
  • - Analysis of census data
  • - Key informants interviews
  • - Review available literature
community action research
Community action research

(Adapted from Sultana andThompson, 2003; Fitzgerald, 2003)

1

Community identification

2

Participatory action planning

3

Implementation community plan

4

Participatory evaluation

community action research 1 community identification
Community action research: 1 Community identification

Participatory resource mapping

Key informants discussion

Oral history with elders

Direct observation

Questionnaire interviews with random sample

Flock characteristics & management practices

Progeny history

Ranking and scoring exercices

Morphological measurement

Key informants

Focus group

Wealth ranking

community action research 3 implementation
Community action research:3 Implementation
  • Farmer Field School:
  • Participants divided in small groups
  • Each group visit a flock of a group member
  • Observations guided by checklist
  • Discussions in each group
  • Plenary
  • Special topics using „expert farmer“ approach
  • Group dynamic exercises
  • Monthly visit to selected flocks by enumerators
community action research 4 evaluation
Community action research:4 Evaluation
  • Random sample participants and non participants
  • Questionnaire survey and flock census
  • (before-after participatory action planning)
  • Assessment changes in:
  • Management practices: flock size, feeding, watering,

disease control, mating control, breeding strategies

  • Actual effective population size (Ne)
  • Social capital: trust, harmony, cooperation, empathy,

unity, empowerment

data analysis
Data analysis
  • Information gathered through PRA analysed
  • Immediate feedback to farmers
  • Biophysical and socio-economic data integrated into GIS program using Arc view GIS software
  • Statistical analysis (e.g., ANOVA and logistic regression models, multivariate, PCA and cluster analyses;SPSS version 11.5)
time schedule
Time schedule

Could we start field work before October?)