# Welcome to World Geography! - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Welcome to World Geography!. Using Maps. Compasss Rose/Directional Indicator Legend/Key Scale. Basic Map Components. AKA: directional indicator Shows cardinal directions N, S, E, W Often indicates intermediate directions NE, SE, SW, NW. Compass Rose. AKA: Key

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Welcome to World Geography!

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## Welcome to World Geography!

Using Maps

Compasss Rose/Directional Indicator

Legend/Key

Scale

### Basic Map Components

• AKA: directional indicator

• Shows cardinal directions

• N, S, E, W

• Often indicates intermediate directions

• NE, SE, SW, NW

### Compass Rose

• AKA: Key

• Tells about symbols used on the map

### Legend

• Tells about the size of a map in relation to the size of the real world

• How?

• Gives the ratio between distances on the map and actual distances on the earth

• Shown in both miles (mi) and kilometers (km)

### Scale

Parallels of Latitude

Meridians of longitude

### The Global Grid

• Latitude and longitude are imaginary lines forming a grid covering the whole globe

• Every place on earth has a unique position on the grid

### The Global Grid

• AKA: Parallels

• Why?

• The lines run parallel to the EQUATOR

• Every place has a specific latitude

• 0 degrees latitude= Equator

### Lines of Latitude

• AKA: Meridians

• Run from pole to pole

• Cross the lines of latitude

• Every place on earth has a specific longitude

• 0 degrees longitude=

• Prime Meridian (Greenwich Meridian)

### Latitude and Longitude Practice

What does a map legend indicate?Tells the user about the symbols used on the map.What are the four cardinal directions?North, South, East, and WestIn what directions do meridians of longitude run?North and SouthLines of latitude?East and West

• Globe: the MOST ACCURATE method of showing the entire surface of the earth

• What are possible problems of carrying a globe around with you?

### Displaying Information

• Cartographers

• mapmakers

• Map projections

• Ways of showing the earth on a flat page

• Distortion

• A twisting out of normal shape or form.

• A lack of correspondence of size or intensity in an image or object

### Terms

What problem do cartographers face?Representing our round planet on a flat page.What are map projections?Efforts to make the best possible representation with the least distortion.

• Great Circle

• An imaginary line that circles the earth, creating two EQUAL hemispheres

• Airplanes often use great circle routes to save fuel and to reduce travel time.

### Great Circle Routes

• loxodrome

• curve cutting the meridians of a sphere at a constant nonright angle. Thus, it may be seen as the path of a ship sailing always oblique to the meridian and directed always to the same point of the compass. Pedro Nunes, who first conceived the curve (1550), mistakenly believed it to be the shortest path joining two points on a sphere (see great circle route). Any ship following such a course would, because of convergence of meridians on the poles, travel around the Earth on a spiral that approaches one of the poles as a limit. On a Mercator projection such a line ( rhumb line) would be straight. Rhumb lines are used to simplify small-scale charting

• Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.

### Mercator vs. Robinson Projection

• One of the most simple yet most distorted projections

• Why?

• Images at the poles are spread in order to flatten the globe

• This makes areas at the poles larger than they really are

• Shapes are more accurate, but areas and sizes are not

### Mercator Projection

• Less size and shape distortion

• Areas at the poles appear flatter than they really are

• Land on eastern and western edges are fairly accurate in size and shape

### Robinson Projection

What is the most accurate way to display information about the earth?A globe.What is another name for a cartographer?Mapmaker.What route do pilots take in order to save fuel and reduce travel time?Great circles.What is the advantage of a Robinson projection?Maps have less size and shape distortion.

### Types of Maps

General Purpose

Special Purpose

• Show information that is most often used by readers

• Physical

• Political

• AKA: Thematic Maps

• Relay information about specific types of data

• Climate

• Vegetation

• Natural resource use/economic activities

• Population density

• Population distribution

### Types of Maps

• AKA: Relief maps

• Show physical features of an area

• Mountains

• Rivers

• Lakes

• Relief-the changing elevation of the land

• Colors used:

• Green for lower relief

• Brown for higher relief

• Blue for water bodies

### Physical Maps

• Show political features

• Political features are determined by people

• State boundaries

• National boundaries

• Cities

• Capitals

### Political Maps

• Climate

• General temperature and precipitation patterns

• Usually shown in various colors on the map key

### Special-Purpose Maps

• Economic Activities/Natural Resources

• Symbols show key locations of activities and resources

• Economic activities-ways in which people produce and distribute goods and services

### Special-Purpose Maps

• Population Density

• The average number of people living in a given area

• Listed per sq mi or

sq km

### Special Purpose Maps

How does a natural resources map show where different resources are found?By using symbols to show key locations of activities and resources.What is the difference between an economic activity and a natural resource?Economic activities-ways in which people produce and distribute goods and servicesNatural resource-item in the environment that people need and value