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CHAPTER 2. THE ELEMENTS OF MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR: THEORY TREATMENT RESEARCH. THE ROLE OF THEORY IN ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY. SIX THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES INFLUENTIAL TODAY Biological Psychodynamic Behavioral Cognitive Humanistic-Existential Community-Cultural. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE.

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Chapter 2

CHAPTER 2

THE ELEMENTS OF MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR:

THEORY

TREATMENT

RESEARCH


The role of theory in abnormal psychology
THE ROLE OF THEORY IN ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY

SIX THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES INFLUENTIAL TODAY

  • Biological

  • Psychodynamic

  • Behavioral

  • Cognitive

  • Humanistic-Existential

  • Community-Cultural


The biological perspective
THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

  • GENETIC FACTORS

  • THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • THE BRAIN

  • THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

  • THE NEUROSCIENCE REVOLUTION

  • NEUROPHARMACOLOGY

  • PSYCHONEUROIMMUNOLOGY

  • INTEGRATION OF BIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SYSTEMS


Genetic factors
GENETIC FACTORS

  • Chromosomal anomalies

    • Karotype

  • Genes

    • The Human Genome Project

    • DNA and penetrance

    • Heritability

    • Penetrance

    • Behavior Genetics

      • Pedigree Studies








The nervous system1
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    • Brain

    • Spinal cord

  • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    • Somatic System

    • Autonomic System

  • THE NEURON

    • Axons

    • Dendrites

    • Neurotransmitters



The neuroscience revolution
THE NEUROSCIENCE REVOLUTION

  • Neuroanatomy

  • Neuropathology

  • Neurochemistry

  • Neuropharmacology

  • Neuropsychology


Brain imaging
BRAIN IMAGING

  • COMPUTERIZED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY (CT)

  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)

  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (MRS)

  • SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (SPECT)

  • POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PT)



The psychodynamic perspective sigmund freud
THE PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE – SIGMUND FREUD

  • THEORY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS

  • THEORY OF PERSONALITY

  • STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

  • THE PSYCHIC APPARATUS

  • ANXIETY

  • DEFENSE MECHANISMS



The psychic appratus id ego superego
THE PSYCHIC APPRATUSID, EGO, SUPEREGO




Defense mechanisms continued
DEFENSE MECHANISMS(continued)


Recent approaches to psychoanalysis
RECENT APPROACHES TO PSYCHOANALYSIS

  • Carl Jung

  • Alfred Adler

  • Erik Erikson

  • Ego Psychology

  • Object Relations

  • Self-psychology


The behavaioral perspective
THE BEHAVAIORAL PERSPECTIVE

  • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

    • Unconditioned stimulus-unconditioned response

    • Conditioned stimulus-conditioned response

  • OPERANT CONDITINING

    • Positive & negative reinforcers

    • Punishment

    • Schedules of reinforcement

  • SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES

    • Modeling & role playing



The cognitive perspective
THE COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE

  • MALADAPTIVE THOUGHTS ARE THE CAUSE OF MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR

  • AARON BECK

    • The goal of therapy is to help clients restructure their thinking.

  • Albert Ellis

    • Rational-emotive therapy helps clients question irrational beliefs and modify unrealistic thoughts.



The humanistic existential perspective
THE HUMANISTIC-EXISTENTIAL PERSPECTIVE

  • THE HUMANISTIC VIEW

    • People are striving toward self-actualization.

    • Carol Rogers

  • THE EXISTENTIAL VIEW

    • Emphasis on self-determination, choice, and individual responsibility.

    • Viktor Frankl


The community cultural perspective
THE COMMUNITY-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

  • Belief that maladaptive behavior results from inability to cope effectively with stress.

  • Focus on attempts to reduce maladaptive behaviors through preventive measures.

  • Causation theory

  • Social selection theory

  • Social roles

  • Labeling


An integrative approach
AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH

  • Each perspective is valuable to understanding maladaptive behavior.

  • Different perspectives are more appropriate under differing conditions.

  • Environmental and individual factors often interact to produce maladaptive behavior.


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