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Essential Question : How did progressives bring reform to urban & state governments? Warm-Up Question: How effective were progressive reformers in addressing: (a) Problems in cities? (b) Discrimination against African-Americans? (c) Inequalities against women? . Presidential Seal.

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  • Essential Question:

    • How did progressives bring reform to urban & state governments?

  • Warm-Up Question:

    • How effective were progressive reformers in addressing:

      (a) Problems in cities?

      (b) Discrimination against African-Americans?

      (c) Inequalities against women?

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


Government Reform

  • City, state, & national governments were in need of reform:

    • Corrupt political machines controlled city governments

    • Monopolists used their wealth to influence politicians, encourage monopolies, & fight labor laws

    • Political positions were gained based on patronage not merit

    • Corruption scandals plagued the national government

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


Urban Government Reform

  • In the 1880s, reformers began to demand change in city gov’ts:

    • Reformers tried to end patronage (appointment based on loyalty) by passing the Pendleton Act which required merit-based exams

    • Reformers tried to make gov’t more efficient & break the power of machines by shifting power to city commissions & managers

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson



Rather than 1 mayor making all decisions, a committee oversaw different aspects of local government

…politicians created the 1st city commission gov’t


Other cities adopted this model, but added a trained oversaw different aspects of local governmentcity manager to carry out the day-to-day operation of government


Progressive oversaw different aspects of local governmentReform in the States

  • Progressive reformers impacted state governments too:

    • States began regulating railroads & other big businesses to help workers & promote competition

    • States passed laws limiting workhours for children & women

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


Progressive Reform in the State oversaw different aspects of local government

  • The most significant

    state reformer was

    governor Robert La

    Follette’s

    “Wisconsin Idea”:

    • Used academic

      “experts” from the

      University of Wisconsin

      to help create state laws

    • Wisconsin was the 1st

      state to create an income

      tax& regulate railroads

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


Progressives helped make state governments more democratic
Progressives helped make state governments more democratic oversaw different aspects of local government

State of Texas

Recall:

Citizens can vote to remove an elected official

Initiative:

Citizens can put an issue on a state ballot & vote to make it a law

Referendum: Citizens vote to increase taxes for new programs


Progressive oversaw different aspects of local governmentReform in the States

  • Progressives helped make state governments more democratic:

    • 17thAmendment was ratified which allowed for the direct election of Senators by the people

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


The Senate oversaw different aspects of local government


National Progressive Reform oversaw different aspects of local government: Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, & Woodrow Wilson

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


President oversaw different aspects of local governmentTheodore Roosevelt

  • Theodore Roosevelt: A “Modern President”

  • VP Theodore Roosevelt became president after the assassination of William McKinley

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

McKinley was assassinated by an anarchist in Buffalo in September of 1901

Woodrow Wilson


President oversaw different aspects of local governmentTheodore Roosevelt

  • TR was a different kind of president

    • He thought the gov’t ought to

      take

      responsibility

      for the welfare

      of the American people

    • His agenda of progressive reform was called the “Square Deal”

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


Theodore roosevelt a modern president
Theodore Roosevelt oversaw different aspects of local government: A “Modern” President

“It is the duty of the president to act upon the theory that he is the steward of the people, and…to assume that he has the legal right to do whatever the needs of the people demand, unless the Constitution or the laws explicitly forbid him to do it”

  • TR was committed to a series of reforms:

    • Breaking up harmful monopolies (called “trustbusting”)

    • Regulating businesses such as railroads & the meat industry

    • Conservation of natural resources


Trustbusting oversaw different aspects of local government

  • During the Gilded Age, Congress passed a series of laws designed to keep big business in check:

    • Sherman Anti-Trust Act in 1890 made it illegal for companies to restrict trade

  • Congress did not use the law to break-up monopolies

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


Trustbusting oversaw different aspects of local government

  • Roosevelt saw the benefit of efficient monopolies, but wanted to control badtrusts:

    • Roosevelt administration “busted”25 trusts in 7 years

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


Theodore roosevelt the trustbuster
Theodore Roosevelt, the Trustbuster oversaw different aspects of local government

RESTRAINT


Supporting Workers oversaw different aspects of local government

  • 1902, the United Mine Workers went on strike to demand higher pay & an eight-hour work day

    • The Anthracite Coal Strike lasted 11months & threatened the nation as winter approached

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


Supporting Workers oversaw different aspects of local government

  • Unlike the Gilded Age presidents, TR did not side with the owners & break up the strike

    • TR forced both sides to arbitrate or face gov’t seizure of the coal mine

    • The result was a “square deal” for both sides

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


Regulating Business oversaw different aspects of local government

  • When muckraker Upton Sinclair’s The Junglewas published, Roosevelt pushed for regulation of the meat packing industry

    • Congress passed the Meat Inspection Act in 1906

    • To ban harmful products & end false medicine claims, the Pure Food & Drug Act passed in 1906

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


Unregulated food medicines the need for the pure food drug act
Unregulated Food & Medicines: oversaw different aspects of local governmentThe Need for the Pure Food & Drug Act


Conservation of the Environment oversaw different aspects of local government

  • During the Gilded Age, corporations clear-

    cut forests &

    viewed America’s

    natural resources

    as endless

  • Roosevelt began the 1st national

    environmental conservation program

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

TR stands with environmental activist John Muir

Woodrow Wilson


Conservation of the Environment oversaw different aspects of local government

  • The gov’t protected 195 million acres as off limits to businesses

  • The Reclamation Service placed natural resources (oil, trees, coal) under federal protection

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


National parks and forests
National Parks and Forests oversaw different aspects of local government


The Legacy of Theodore Roosevelt oversaw different aspects of local government

  • In 1908, Roosevelt decided not to run for re-election as president

  • TR’s presidency was important because for the first time, the national government:

    • Regulated big business

    • Protected the environment

    • Assumed responsibility for the welfare of workers & consumers

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


William oversaw different aspects of local governmentHoward Taft

When Roosevelt decided not to run for re-election in 1908, his successor to the presidency was Republican William Howard Taft


The Presidency of Taft oversaw different aspects of local government

  • Like TR, Taft believed that the U.S. needed progressive reform:

    • In his 4 years as president, Taft helped break up twice as many monopolies as Roosevelt

    • Created the Children’s Bureau & pushed for child labor laws

    • Helped create safety codes for coal miners & railroad workers

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


The Presidency of Taft oversaw different aspects of local government

  • But, Taft did not always trust the gov’t to solve problems & often sided with conservative Republicans

    • He angered progressives when he supported a high tariff which helped monopolies

    • He allowed a cabinet secretary to sell 1 million acres of conservation land to businesses

  • Progressive politicians hoped that TR would run for president again

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


Progressives roosevelt began to view taft as having made a mess of tr s reforms
Progressives (& Roosevelt) began to view oversaw different aspects of local governmentTaft as having made a mess of TR’s reforms


The Election of 1912 oversaw different aspects of local government

  • TR decided to run for president in 1912 but the Republican Party picked Taft as their candidate

    • TR created the Progressive (“Bull Moose”) Party

    • Taft was the Republican nominee & the Democrats ran a reform governor, Woodrow Wilson

  • Republican voters were divided in whom to support: Roosevelt or Taft

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


The election of 1912 the progressive party bull moose party
The Election of 1912 & oversaw different aspects of local governmentthe Progressive Party (Bull Moose Party)

I’m feeling as fit as a “bull moose”


The election of 1912
The Election of 1912 oversaw different aspects of local government

With the Republicans divided, Democrat Woodrow Wilson won the election of 1912

Republicans divided by a Bull moose equals a Democratic victory!


President Woodrow Wilson oversaw different aspects of local government

  • President Wilson oversaw a great wave of progressive reforms:

    • 16th Amendment created the 1stincome tax in U.S. history

    • 17th Amendment allowed for the direct-election of U.S. Senators

    • 18th Amendment outlawed alcohol (prohibition)

    • 19th Amendment granted women the right to vote (suffrage)

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

“Progressive Amendments”

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


President Woodrow Wilson oversaw different aspects of local government

  • President Wilson oversaw a great wave of progressive reforms:

    • Created the Federal Reserveto regulate the economy by adjusting the money supply & interest rates

    • The Clayton Anti-Trust Act limited the ability of companies to form monopolies & protected workers’ right to strike

    • The Federal Trade Commission monitored unfair business practices

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


The federal reserve system
The Federal Reserve System oversaw different aspects of local government

The “Fed” regulates the amount of money in circulation to help keep the economy strong


The oversaw different aspects of local governmentEnd of Progressive Reform

  • The Progressive Era (1890-1920) brought major changes:

    • Gov’t regulation of big business

    • Improvements in U.S. cities

    • More democracy for the people

  • But, the outbreak of World War I in Europe distracted Americans & brought an end to the Progressive Era

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


  • The End oversaw different aspects of local government

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


Presidential Seal oversaw different aspects of local government

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson


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