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Essential Question : How did progressives bring reform to urban & state governments? Warm-Up Question: How effective were progressive reformers in addressing: (a) Problems in cities? (b) Discrimination against African-Americans? (c) Inequalities against women? . Presidential Seal.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Essential Question:

    • How did progressives bring reform to urban & state governments?
  • Warm-Up Question:
    • How effective were progressive reformers in addressing:

(a) Problems in cities?

(b) Discrimination against African-Americans?

(c) Inequalities against women?

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide3

Government Reform

  • City, state, & national governments were in need of reform:
    • Corrupt political machines controlled city governments
    • Monopolists used their wealth to influence politicians, encourage monopolies, & fight labor laws
    • Political positions were gained based on patronage not merit
    • Corruption scandals plagued the national government

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide5

Urban Government Reform

  • In the 1880s, reformers began to demand change in city gov’ts:
    • Reformers tried to end patronage (appointment based on loyalty) by passing the Pendleton Act which required merit-based exams
    • Reformers tried to make gov’t more efficient & break the power of machines by shifting power to city commissions & managers

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide7

Rather than 1 mayor making all decisions, a committee oversaw different aspects of local government

…politicians created the 1st city commission gov’t

slide8

Other cities adopted this model, but added a trained city manager to carry out the day-to-day operation of government

slide9

Progressive Reform in the States

  • Progressive reformers impacted state governments too:
    • States began regulating railroads & other big businesses to help workers & promote competition
    • States passed laws limiting workhours for children & women

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide10

Progressive Reform in the State

  • The most significant

state reformer was

governor Robert La

Follette’s

“Wisconsin Idea”:

    • Used academic

“experts” from the

University of Wisconsin

to help create state laws

    • Wisconsin was the 1st

state to create an income

tax& regulate railroads

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

progressives helped make state governments more democratic
Progressives helped make state governments more democratic

State of Texas

Recall:

Citizens can vote to remove an elected official

Initiative:

Citizens can put an issue on a state ballot & vote to make it a law

Referendum: Citizens vote to increase taxes for new programs

slide13

Progressive Reform in the States

  • Progressives helped make state governments more democratic:
    • 17thAmendment was ratified which allowed for the direct election of Senators by the people

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide15

National Progressive Reform: Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, & Woodrow Wilson

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide16

President Theodore Roosevelt

  • Theodore Roosevelt: A “Modern President”
  • VP Theodore Roosevelt became president after the assassination of William McKinley

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

McKinley was assassinated by an anarchist in Buffalo in September of 1901

Woodrow Wilson

slide17

President Theodore Roosevelt

  • TR was a different kind of president
    • He thought the gov’t ought to

take

responsibility

for the welfare

of the American people

    • His agenda of progressive reform was called the “Square Deal”

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

theodore roosevelt a modern president
Theodore Roosevelt: A “Modern” President

“It is the duty of the president to act upon the theory that he is the steward of the people, and…to assume that he has the legal right to do whatever the needs of the people demand, unless the Constitution or the laws explicitly forbid him to do it”

  • TR was committed to a series of reforms:
    • Breaking up harmful monopolies (called “trustbusting”)
    • Regulating businesses such as railroads & the meat industry
    • Conservation of natural resources
slide19

Trustbusting

  • During the Gilded Age, Congress passed a series of laws designed to keep big business in check:
    • Sherman Anti-Trust Act in 1890 made it illegal for companies to restrict trade
  • Congress did not use the law to break-up monopolies

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide20

Trustbusting

  • Roosevelt saw the benefit of efficient monopolies, but wanted to control badtrusts:
    • Roosevelt administration “busted”25 trusts in 7 years

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide22

Supporting Workers

  • 1902, the United Mine Workers went on strike to demand higher pay & an eight-hour work day
    • The Anthracite Coal Strike lasted 11months & threatened the nation as winter approached

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide23

Supporting Workers

  • Unlike the Gilded Age presidents, TR did not side with the owners & break up the strike
    • TR forced both sides to arbitrate or face gov’t seizure of the coal mine
    • The result was a “square deal” for both sides

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide24

Regulating Business

  • When muckraker Upton Sinclair’s The Junglewas published, Roosevelt pushed for regulation of the meat packing industry
    • Congress passed the Meat Inspection Act in 1906
    • To ban harmful products & end false medicine claims, the Pure Food & Drug Act passed in 1906

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide26

Conservation of the Environment

  • During the Gilded Age, corporations clear-

cut forests &

viewed America’s

natural resources

as endless

  • Roosevelt began the 1st national

environmental conservation program

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

TR stands with environmental activist John Muir

Woodrow Wilson

slide27

Conservation of the Environment

  • The gov’t protected 195 million acres as off limits to businesses
  • The Reclamation Service placed natural resources (oil, trees, coal) under federal protection

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide29

The Legacy of Theodore Roosevelt

  • In 1908, Roosevelt decided not to run for re-election as president
  • TR’s presidency was important because for the first time, the national government:
    • Regulated big business
    • Protected the environment
    • Assumed responsibility for the welfare of workers & consumers

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide30

William Howard Taft

When Roosevelt decided not to run for re-election in 1908, his successor to the presidency was Republican William Howard Taft

slide31

The Presidency of Taft

  • Like TR, Taft believed that the U.S. needed progressive reform:
    • In his 4 years as president, Taft helped break up twice as many monopolies as Roosevelt
    • Created the Children’s Bureau & pushed for child labor laws
    • Helped create safety codes for coal miners & railroad workers

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide32

The Presidency of Taft

  • But, Taft did not always trust the gov’t to solve problems & often sided with conservative Republicans
    • He angered progressives when he supported a high tariff which helped monopolies
    • He allowed a cabinet secretary to sell 1 million acres of conservation land to businesses
  • Progressive politicians hoped that TR would run for president again

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide34

The Election of 1912

  • TR decided to run for president in 1912 but the Republican Party picked Taft as their candidate
    • TR created the Progressive (“Bull Moose”) Party
    • Taft was the Republican nominee & the Democrats ran a reform governor, Woodrow Wilson
  • Republican voters were divided in whom to support: Roosevelt or Taft

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

the election of 1912 the progressive party bull moose party
The Election of 1912 & the Progressive Party (Bull Moose Party)

I’m feeling as fit as a “bull moose”

the election of 1912
The Election of 1912

With the Republicans divided, Democrat Woodrow Wilson won the election of 1912

Republicans divided by a Bull moose equals a Democratic victory!

slide37

President Woodrow Wilson

  • President Wilson oversaw a great wave of progressive reforms:
    • 16th Amendment created the 1stincome tax in U.S. history
    • 17th Amendment allowed for the direct-election of U.S. Senators
    • 18th Amendment outlawed alcohol (prohibition)
    • 19th Amendment granted women the right to vote (suffrage)

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

“Progressive Amendments”

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide38

President Woodrow Wilson

  • President Wilson oversaw a great wave of progressive reforms:
    • Created the Federal Reserveto regulate the economy by adjusting the money supply & interest rates
    • The Clayton Anti-Trust Act limited the ability of companies to form monopolies & protected workers’ right to strike
    • The Federal Trade Commission monitored unfair business practices

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

the federal reserve system
The Federal Reserve System

The “Fed” regulates the amount of money in circulation to help keep the economy strong

slide40

The End of Progressive Reform

  • The Progressive Era (1890-1920) brought major changes:
    • Gov’t regulation of big business
    • Improvements in U.S. cities
    • More democracy for the people
  • But, the outbreak of World War I in Europe distracted Americans & brought an end to the Progressive Era

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide41

The End

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

slide42

Presidential Seal

Teddy Roosevelt

William Howard Taft

Woodrow Wilson

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