Multi level governance as a challenge for tourism destination development a tale of many sandwiches
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MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE AS A CHALLENGE FOR TOURISM DESTINATION DEVELOPMENT A tale of many sandwiches. 1. Introducing Destination Management Organisations (DMOs) 2. Institutionalist perspectives on destination development 3. Challenges of flexible geographical scales

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Professor Henrik Halkier Aalborg University, Denmark [email protected]

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Multi level governance as a challenge for tourism destination development a tale of many sandwiches

MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE AS A CHALLENGE FOR TOURISM DESTINATION DEVELOPMENTA tale of many sandwiches

1. Introducing Destination Management Organisations (DMOs)

2. Institutionalist perspectives on destination development

3. Challenges of flexible geographical scales

4. Between public and private challenges

5. Linking consumers and producers

Professor Henrik Halkier

Aalborg University, Denmark

[email protected]


Dmos rationales and cross pressures

DMOs:Rationales and cross-pressures

What?

  • ā€¯.. the organisations responsible for the management and/or marketing of destinationsā€¯ (UNWTO)

  • public, national/regional/local, diverse tasks

    Why?

  • handling of cross-pressures

  • improving outcomes

Inter/national

Producer

Public

DMO

Private

Consumer

Local


Institutionalist perspectives on destination management

Organisation

State/region

Sponsoring

Aims

Socio-

economic context

DMO

Targets

Tourists

Destination

Strategy

Instruments

Competitors

Resources

Knowledge

INSTITUTIONALIST PERSPECTIVESon destination management

Focus on three central relations

  • the destination and its political, social, economic contexts

  • the DMO and it targets: firms, workforce, tourists, institutions

  • last but not least: the DMO and its sponsors


Challenging geographies of destination management

CHALLENGING GEOGRAPHIESof destination management

Top-down intervention

  • National institutional engineering

  • EU (de-)regulation

    Case: Regional DMOs

Danish Tourist Board

Local associations

Destination partnerships

Tourism export groups

Regional Tourism Boards

Product partnerships

Regional partnerships

85

95

02

07


Challenging geographies of destination management1

CHALLENGING GEOGRAPHIESof destination management

Top-down intervention

  • National institutional engineering

  • EU (de-)regulation

    Case: Regional DMOs

  • Uneven process

  • Overlapping competences

  • Difficult coordination

  • New international competition


Challenging geographies of destination management2

CHALLENGING GEOGRAPHIESof destination management

Top-down intervention

  • National institutional engineering

  • EU (de-)regulation

    Bottom-up ungovernability

  • Inter-local competition

  • Civil society anchoring

    Case: VisitMariagerfjord


Cross sector challenges of destination management

CROSS-SECTOR CHALLENGESof destination management

Public-private interactions

  • Essential for tourist experience

  • Many faces of public sector

  • Strategic dilemmas

  • Competition/cooperation

    Case: Top of Denmark

Strategy development

  • from service optimisation

  • via joint marketing

  • to experience development

    DMO as cluster organisation?

  • external network link

  • for local organisations/SMEs


The ultimate dmo challenge linking producers and consumers

THE ULTIMATE DMO CHALLENGELinking producers and consumers

DMO activities

  • development of new services

  • knowledge-intensive policies

Scope for policy development

  • creative market intelligence

  • extra-regional sources

  • skills of DMOs/SMEs


The ultimate dmo challenge linking producers and consumers1

THE ULTIMATE DMO CHALLENGELinking producers and consumers

Local/present producers

  • More of the same

  • Imitative enterpreneurialism

  • Mobilisation of tacit knowledge

    Consumers far away

  • Mobilisation of tacit knowledge

  • Standardised market intelligence

  • Competition largely ignored


Conclusions beyond multi level governance

CONCLUSIONSBeyond multi-level governance

Good news

  • Necessity of vertical networking

  • Scope to act at destination level

    Unsurprising news

  • Horizontal networking equally important

  • Pragmatic involvement of private actors

    Akward news

  • Need for more informed action

  • Creative intelligence on demand and competition


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