multi level governance as a challenge for tourism destination development a tale of many sandwiches
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MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE AS A CHALLENGE FOR TOURISM DESTINATION DEVELOPMENT A tale of many sandwiches. 1. Introducing Destination Management Organisations (DMOs) 2. Institutionalist perspectives on destination development 3. Challenges of flexible geographical scales

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multi level governance as a challenge for tourism destination development a tale of many sandwiches

MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE AS A CHALLENGE FOR TOURISM DESTINATION DEVELOPMENTA tale of many sandwiches

1. Introducing Destination Management Organisations (DMOs)

2. Institutionalist perspectives on destination development

3. Challenges of flexible geographical scales

4. Between public and private challenges

5. Linking consumers and producers

Professor Henrik Halkier

Aalborg University, Denmark

[email protected]

dmos rationales and cross pressures
DMOs:Rationales and cross-pressures

What?

  • ”.. the organisations responsible for the management and/or marketing of destinations” (UNWTO)
  • public, national/regional/local, diverse tasks

Why?

  • handling of cross-pressures
  • improving outcomes

Inter/national

Producer

Public

DMO

Private

Consumer

Local

institutionalist perspectives on destination management

Organisation

State/region

Sponsoring

Aims

Socio-

economic context

DMO

Targets

Tourists

Destination

Strategy

Instruments

Competitors

Resources

Knowledge

INSTITUTIONALIST PERSPECTIVESon destination management

Focus on three central relations

  • the destination and its political, social, economic contexts
  • the DMO and it targets: firms, workforce, tourists, institutions
  • last but not least: the DMO and its sponsors
challenging geographies of destination management
CHALLENGING GEOGRAPHIESof destination management

Top-down intervention

  • National institutional engineering
  • EU (de-)regulation

Case: Regional DMOs

Danish Tourist Board

Local associations

Destination partnerships

Tourism export groups

Regional Tourism Boards

Product partnerships

Regional partnerships

85

95

02

07

challenging geographies of destination management1
CHALLENGING GEOGRAPHIESof destination management

Top-down intervention

  • National institutional engineering
  • EU (de-)regulation

Case: Regional DMOs

  • Uneven process
  • Overlapping competences
  • Difficult coordination
  • New international competition
challenging geographies of destination management2
CHALLENGING GEOGRAPHIESof destination management

Top-down intervention

  • National institutional engineering
  • EU (de-)regulation

Bottom-up ungovernability

  • Inter-local competition
  • Civil society anchoring

Case: VisitMariagerfjord

cross sector challenges of destination management
CROSS-SECTOR CHALLENGESof destination management

Public-private interactions

  • Essential for tourist experience
  • Many faces of public sector
  • Strategic dilemmas
  • Competition/cooperation

Case: Top of Denmark

Strategy development

  • from service optimisation
  • via joint marketing
  • to experience development

DMO as cluster organisation?

  • external network link
  • for local organisations/SMEs
the ultimate dmo challenge linking producers and consumers
THE ULTIMATE DMO CHALLENGELinking producers and consumers

DMO activities

  • development of new services
  • knowledge-intensive policies

Scope for policy development

  • creative market intelligence
  • extra-regional sources
  • skills of DMOs/SMEs
the ultimate dmo challenge linking producers and consumers1
THE ULTIMATE DMO CHALLENGELinking producers and consumers

Local/present producers

  • More of the same
  • Imitative enterpreneurialism
  • Mobilisation of tacit knowledge

Consumers far away

  • Mobilisation of tacit knowledge
  • Standardised market intelligence
  • Competition largely ignored
conclusions beyond multi level governance
CONCLUSIONSBeyond multi-level governance

Good news

  • Necessity of vertical networking
  • Scope to act at destination level

Unsurprising news

  • Horizontal networking equally important
  • Pragmatic involvement of private actors

Akward news

  • Need for more informed action
  • Creative intelligence on demand and competition
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