Ways to solve discrepancies in Energy label testing for washing machines
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Ways to solve discrepancies in Energy label testing for washing machines. Hartmut Kraus, Whirlpool Rainer Stamminger, Electrolux. Ad hoc WG. G.C.H. Bakker CFT D. Fäh EMPA / IEC SC59D/WG 13

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Ways to solve discrepancies in Energy label testing for washing machines

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Ways to solve discrepancies in energy label testing for washing machines

Ways to solve discrepancies in Energy label testing for washing machines

Hartmut Kraus, Whirlpool Rainer Stamminger, Electrolux


Ad hoc wg

Ad hoc WG

  • G.C.H. Bakker CFT

  • D. Fäh EMPA / IEC SC59D/WG 13

  • T. Hilgers WfK / IEC SC59D/MT15-Uncertainty

  • H. Kraus Whirlpool /CENELEC TC59X/WG1.1

  • U. Sommer BAM / IEC SC59D/MT15

  • R. StammingerElectrolux / CECED


What discrepancies

What discrepancies ?

Tests following the standard EN 60456 in the same and in different laboratories have shown, that values can differ by more then one energy label class!!!

Definitions in the standard are not precise enough!


Washing performance as function of base load history

Machine

X

X

Base load no.

A

K

Total amount of load

kg

4,5

4,5

Water consumption during main wash

l

17,2 ± 0,6

16,5 ± 1,0

Total water consumption

l

67,0 ± 1,4

62,7 ± 3,2

Total energy consumption

kWh

1,13 ± 0,05

1,09 ± 0,09

Energy consumption ratio

kWh/kg

0,25

0,24

Energy efficiency (E-Label)

class

C

C

Carbon black/Oil (EMPA 106)

%

42,1 ± 0,9/0,7

38,4 ± 4,1/3,3

Blood (EMPA 111)

%

82,9 ± 0,4/0,3

81,2 ± 1,7/1,4

Cacao (Empa 112)

%

48,9 ± 2,0/1,6

42,7 ± 5,7/4,6

Red wine (EMPA 114)

%

76,6 ± 0,4/0,3

75,0 ± 2,2/1,7

Sum of remission values

%

250,4 ± 1,8

237,3 ± 6,1

Remission value Reference machine

%

253,0 ± 2,7

253,0 ± 2,7

Washing performance ratio

0,99

0,938

Washing performance

class

C

E

Washing performance as function of base load history

Testing conditions: same machine, same laboratory, etc.

Source: tested at BAM, Bundesanstalt für Materialwirtschaft, Berlin


Ways to solve discrepancies in energy label testing for washing machines

Washingmachine

Washingmachine

LogoABC 123

Manufacturer Model

LogoABC 123

Manufacturer Model

More efficient

More efficient

Less efficient

X.YZ

Energy consumption kWh/cycle

(based on standard test resultsfor 60 °C cotton cycle)

Less efficient

X.YZ

Energy consumption kWh/cycle

(based on standard test resultsfor 60 °C cotton cycle)

A BCD E F G

Washing performanceA: higher G: lower

A

Washing performanceA: higher G: lower

Spin drying performanceA: higher G: lower

Spin speed (rpm)

A B CDE F G 1100

B C D E F G

Spin drying performanceA: higher G: lower

Spin speed (rpm)

A B CDE F G 1100

Capacity (cotton) kgWater consumption l

y.zyx

Capacity (cotton) kgWater consumption l

NoiseWashing(dB(A) re 1 pW)Spinning

xyxyz

y.zyx

NoiseWashing(dB(A) re 1 pW)Spinning

xyxyz

Further information is containedin product brochures

Further information is containedin product brochures

Norm EN 60456Washing machine label Directive 95/12/EC

Norm EN 60456Washing machine label Directive 95/12/EC

Same machine, same laboratory, same ...but different treatment of base-load!

Two different labels

E

C


Ways to solve discrepancies in energy label testing for washing machines

Washing performance as function of soil strips used

Testing conditions: same machine, same laboratory, etc.

2 classes

Source: Group Brandt


Ways to solve discrepancies in energy label testing for washing machines

Washingmachine

Washingmachine

LogoABC 123

Manufacturer Model

LogoABC 123

Manufacturer Model

More efficient

More efficient

Less efficient

X.YZ

Energy consumption kWh/cycle

(based on standard test resultsfor 60 °C cotton cycle)

Less efficient

X.YZ

Energy consumption kWh/cycle

(based on standard test resultsfor 60 °C cotton cycle)

A BCD E F G

Washing performanceA: higher G: lower

A

Washing performanceA: higher G: lower

Spin drying performanceA: higher G: lower

Spin speed (rpm)

A B CDE F G 1100

B C D E F G

Spin drying performanceA: higher G: lower

Spin speed (rpm)

A B CDE F G 1100

Capacity (cotton) kgWater consumption l

y.zyx

Capacity (cotton) kgWater consumption l

NoiseWashing(dB(A) re 1 pW)Spinning

xyxyz

y.zyx

NoiseWashing(dB(A) re 1 pW)Spinning

xyxyz

Further information is containedin product brochures

Further information is containedin product brochures

Norm EN 60456Washing machine label Directive 95/12/EC

Norm EN 60456Washing machine label Directive 95/12/EC

Same machine, same laboratory, same ...

but soil strips from different suppliers

Two different labels

D

B


Ways to solve discrepancies in energy label testing for washing machines

Washing performance measurement is most sensitive

Washing performance

Energy consumption

Incorrect performance measurement will also result in incorrect energy consumption (measurement).


Main problem

Main problem:

  • EN/IEC 60456 defines test material in a generic way

  • no specification is given to qualify the material when being delivered

  • no specification is given to qualify if the material is suitable for being used for tests

  • no criteria is given if tests done are valid to be used for evaluation


Criteria missing mainly for

Criteria missing mainly for:

  • Base load

  • Reference detergent

  • Soil strips


Base load definition

Base load definition

  • No available base load at present complies with definition given in the standard !

  • Important parameters like water uptake, shrinkage and ageing are not specified in the standard.


New base load definition

New base load definition

Proposal for the specification of textiles used as cotton base load in IEC 60456 based on available products

Criterion for new textiles

Bed SheetsPillow CasesHuckaback Towels

Substrate Long Staple Pure Cotton

Yarn Ring Spun

Yarn Twist (T/m)Warp 600 ± 20 600 ± 20 610 ± 20

Weft 500 ± 15 500 ± 15 490 ± 10

Yarn Count (tex)Warp 33 ± 1 33 ± 1 36 ± 1

Weft 33 ± 1 33 ± 1 97 ± 1

Weave Plain Weave Linen 1/1 Huckaback

Pick Count (pick/cm)Warp 24 ± 1 24 ± 1 20 ± 1

Weft 24 ± 1 24 ± 1 12 ± 1

Mass per Unit Area (g/m2) 185 ± 10 185 ± 10 220 ± 10

Dimensions (mm)Length2400 ± 150 800 ± 50 1000 ± 50

Width1600 ± 40 800 ± 20 500 ± 30

Weight per Piece (g) 725 ± 15 240 ± 5 110 ± 3

Finish Desizing, Boiling off, Singeing, Bleaching, no Filling or Stiffening Size


New base load definition1

New base load definition

Proposal for the specification of textiles used as cotton base load in IEC 60456 based on

available products

Criterion for washed textiles

Bed SheetsPillow CasesHuckaback Towels

Water uptake in % (DIN53923)138 +/- 10 138 +/- 10 250 +/- 15

Shrinkage Warp in %

From 0 to 5 cycles -5 +/- 1 -7 +/- 1 -16,5 +/- 1

From 5 to 25 cycles -3 +/- 1 -3 +/- 1 -3 +/- 1

Shrinkage Weft in %

From 0 to 5 cycles -5 +/- 1 -7 +/- 1 -11 +/- 1

From 5 to 25 cycles -3 +/- 1 -3 +/- 1 -3 +/- 1

A detailed description of the seams and the yarns used for the seams as well as a detailed description

of the test procedures for determination of these parameters will be added.


Reference detergent

Reference detergent

Chemical composition is given at present

(which had to be changed recently)

Missing parameters: Det. Perb. TAED

- tolerances on all valuesxxx- oxygen activityxx- enzyme activityx- solubilityxxx- foam intensityx- grain distributionxxx

- pHx

- trickling capabilityxx


Reference detergent1

Reference detergent

Chemical composition (with tolerances):

Ingredient% Tolerance ( + )

Linear sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate8,80,5

Ethoxylated fatty alcohol C 12/14 (7 EO)4,70,3

Sodium soap (tallow soap)3,20,2

Foam inhibitor concentrate (12 % silicon on inorganic carrier)3,90,3

Sodium aluminium silicate zeolite 4 A (80 % active substance) 28,31,0

Sodium carbonate 11,61,0

Sodium salt of a copolymer from acrylic and maleic acid (granulate)2,40,2

Sodium silicate (SiO2:Na2O = 3,3:1)3,00,2

Carboxymethylcellulose1,20,1

Phosphonate (DEQUEST 2066, 25 % active acid)2,80,2

Optical whitener for cotton (stilbene type)0,20,02

Sodium sulfate6,50,5

Protease (Savinase 8.0)0,40,04

Sodium perborate tetrahydrate 20,0u.c.

Tetraacethylen-ethylene-diamine3,0u.c.

u.c.: under consideration


Reference detergent2

Reference detergent

Physical and chemical properties:

IEC-A*

Enzyme activity (kNPU/g):0,034 +/- 0,005

pH:10,55 +/- 0,05


New soil strip specification

New Soil strip specification

  • Present definition defines how the soilings are made, but not the sensitivity in a standard washing process!

  • Only soil strips with the same sensitivity can result in the same washing performance

  • Sensitivity should be defined for factors like - time- temperature- mechanical agitation- detergency


New soil strip specification1

New Soil strip specification

Sensitive on- temperature- time- mechanical agitation

  • Define for each soiling as tested in Wascator (Reference machine):

  • Ratio Cotton 40°C / Cotton 60°C

Sensitive on:- detergency

  • Cotton 60°C,

  • Ratio with 90gr / 180gr IEC A* detergent


New soil strip specification2

New Soil strip specification

  • Ratios and tolerances defined:


Test qualification

Test qualification

  • These ratios define the total test system of Wascator, base load, detergent and soil strips.

  • Ratios may be used as general qualification criteria for the test system


Request

Request!!

  • Get experience in your individual lab with these ratios

  • Report your values to D. Fäh, EMPA

    (for proper evaluation some additional information on storage and test conditions is required; a data form sheet will be delivered with each new delivery of IEC-A* detergent and can be downloaded from http://www…..)


Next steps

Next steps:

  • Change IEC 60456

  • Change EN 60456

  • Introduce modifications as ‘European Specification’

  • Have ‘Industry Agreement’

  • Have mutual agreements of industry with suppliers and test houses


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