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Poetry Terms. Free Verse. Poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme. This poetry imitates the natural rhythms of speech. Blank Verse. Poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Blank means not rhymed. Verse used by William Shakespeare. Iambic Pentameter.

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free verse
Free Verse
  • Poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme. This poetry imitates the natural rhythms of speech.
blank verse
Blank Verse
  • Poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Blank means not rhymed.
  • Verse used by William Shakespeare.
iambic pentameter
Iambic Pentameter
  • Five iambs - The most important verse in poetry form in the English epic and dramatic poetry.
sonnet
Sonnet
  • A fourteen line poem, a lyric, and usually in iambic pentameter.
ballad
Ballad
  • A fairly short narrative poem written in a songlike stanza form.
lyric
Lyric
  • Poetry that does not tell a story but aims at expressing an author’s thoughts or emotions.
imagery
Imagery
  • Word pictures that appeal to the five senses
catalog poem
Catalog Poem
  • A catalog poem is built on a list of images.
  • Sometimes it builds into a rolling rhythm.
scene
Scene
  • A setting which includes time and place
  • Setting may be implied or stated directly
haiku
Haiku
  • A Japanese poetry form
  • 17 syllables, 5-7-5
  • presents images from everyday life
  • Contains seasonal word or symbol
  • Presents a moment of discovery or enlightenment
extended imagery
Extended Imagery
  • Images that continue through several lines of poetry.
example of extended imagery
Example of Extended Imagery

“Then a mile of warm sea-scented beach;

Three fields to cross till a farm appears,

A tap at the pane, the quick sharp scratch

And blue spurt of a lighted match.”

Robert Browning

From “Meeting at Night”

cliche
Cliche
  • An overused word, worn-out expression or phrase
allusion
Allusion
  • A reference to a statement, person, place, event, or thing that is known from literature, history, religion, myth, politics, sports, science, or pop culture.
symbolism
Symbolism
  • A person, place, thing, or event that stands for itself and something beyond itself.
simile
Simile
  • A figure of speech in which an explicit comparison is made between two things essentially unlike, using such words or phrases as like, as, than, similar to, resembles, or seems.
metaphor
Metaphor
  • A figure of speech in which an implicit comparison is made between two things essentially unlike.
personification
Personification
  • A figure of speech in which human attributes are given to an animal, an object, or a concept.
hyperbole
Hyperbole
  • An exaggeration for effect
rhyme
Rhyme
  • Repetition of similar sounds or words, within a line or at the end of a line
half rhyme
Half-rhyme
  • Also called near rhyme or slant rhyme
  • Words are alike in some sound but do not exactly sound the same
  • Example: now and know
approximate rhymes near rhymes slant rhymes
Approximate RhymesNear RhymesSlant Rhymes
  • Two words are alike in some sound but do not rhyme exactly
  • Example:

now and know

stanza
Stanza
  • Group of consecutive lines in a poem that form a single unit
  • Couplet 2
  • Tercet 3
  • Quatrain 4
  • Cinquain 5
stanza continued
Stanza Continued
  • Sestet 6
  • Heptastich 7
  • Octave 8
rhyme scheme
Rhyme Scheme
  • Applying the letters of the alphabet to new sounds of words at the end of each line.
  • I will go a
  • To the show a
  • We will eat b
  • At our seat b
meters
Meters
  • Monometer = 1
  • Dimeter =2
  • Trimeter =3
  • Tetrameter =4
  • Pentameter =5
  • Hexameter =6
meter continued
Meter continued
  • Heptameter = 7
  • Octameter = 8
alliteration
Alliteration
  • Repetition of consonant sounds in words that are close together
consonance
Consonance
  • Repetition of consonant sounds within the words in a line of poetry
assonance
Assonance
  • Repetition of similar vowel sounds that are followed by different consonant sounds

Example: base and fade

young and love

repetition
Repetition
  • Words, phrases, or lines that repeat in the poem
internal rhyme
Internal Rhyme
  • Words that rhyme within one line of poetry.
internal rhyme36
Internal Rhyme
  • Rhymes in the middle of a line
  • “Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary.”

Edgar Allan Poe, from “The Raven”

onomatopoeia
Onomatopoeia
  • Words that sound like their meaning
rhythm
Rhythm
  • Alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables in language
meter
Meter
  • Poetic feet
  • A generally regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables
kinds of feet meter or rhythm
Kinds of Feet Meter or Rhythm
  • Iamb da Dah
  • Trochee Dah da
  • Anapest da da Dah
  • Dactyl Dah da da
  • Spondee Dah Dah
  • These sounds are syllables or words.
scansion
Scansion
  • Reading in an exaggerated way to find the rhythm (meter).
theme
Theme
  • The underlying meaning or idea of the poem
oxymoron
Oxymoron
  • A figure of speech that combines apparently contradictory ideas.
  • Example: jumbo shrimp
apostrophe
Apostrophe
  • A figure of speech in which a writer directly addresses an absent or dead person, an abstract quality, or something non-human as if it were present and capable of responding.
implied metaphor
Implied Metaphor
  • Comparison that suggests rather than directly states that one think is something else.
  • Words suggest the nature of the comparison.
narration
Narration
  • Type of writing or speaking that tells about a series of related events. (The other types of writing are description, exposition, and persuasion.)
style
Style
  • The choice of words, phrases, and sentences
  • Placement on the page
  • Dialect or regional speech
  • Poetic forms, such as ode, ballad, sonnet, or lyric, to name a few
diction
Diction
  • Choice of words
speaker
Speaker
  • The voice that is talking to us in a poem.
slide50
Pun
  • Play on multiple meanings of a word or two words that sound alike but with different meanings. Shakespeare was a great punster.
dialect
Dialect
  • Way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or a particular group of people.
rhetorical question
Rhetorical Question
  • A question asked but not intended by the speaker to be answered.
understatement
Understatement
  • To represent as less than is the case
epithet
Epithet
  • A short descriptive phrase pointing out an outstanding quality of a character.
implied ideas
Implied Ideas
  • Information in a poem that implies meaning, but it does not say explicitly.
  • Many poems ask the reader to “read between the lines.”
irony
Irony
  • Verbal - The difference between what one says and what one means
  • Situational – The difference between what seems appropriate and what really happens, or when what we expect to happen is in fact quite contradictory to what really does take place.
irony continued
Irony Continued
  • Dramatic Irony – When the audience or the reader knows something important that a character in a play or story does not know.
extended metaphor
Extended Metaphor
  • A comparison developed over several lines or the entire poem.
analogy
Analogy
  • An analogy is a comparison of two pairs of words. The words in each pair have the same relationship to each other.
paraphrase
Paraphrase
  • A restatement of the content of a poem designed to make its prose meaning as clear as possible.
slide61
Tone
  • The author’s attitude toward his/her material. Tone depends on word choice.
conflict
Conflict
  • Struggle or clash between opposing characters or between opposing forces.
  • External conflicts

Man vs. Man social

Man vs. Nature physical

Man vs. Fate metaphysical

conflict continued
Conflict Continued
  • Internal Conflict

Man vs. Himself- psychological

rhyme scheme64
Rhyme Scheme
  • Assigning letters of the alphabet to rhyming lines in order to establish the kind of poem.
rhymed couplet
Rhymed Couplet
  • Two consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme.
end stopped line
End-stopped Line
  • Punctuation at the end of the line.
run on line
Run-on Line
  • No punctuation at the end of the line, which means that the reader continues the phrases without pausing or stopping.
shakespearean sonnet
Shakespearean Sonnet
  • Three, four line stanzas, plus a couplet.Each stanza reflects a thought and the couplet give an answer or a conclusion.
  • Abab, cdcd, efef, gg
italian sonnet
Italian Sonnet
  • Also called Petrarchan Sonnet
  • One octave, one sestet
  • The octave establishes a problem, the sestet gives a solution
  • Abba, abba, cde, cde
prose poem
Prose Poem
  • A prose poem is a compact and rhythmic composition written in the form of a prose paragraph.
  • Like any poem, a prose poem often presents its message by means of a vivid figure of speech.
denotation
Denotation
  • Dictionary definition of a word
connotation
Connotation
  • All the meanings, associations, or emotions that a word suggests
dramatic monologue
Dramatic Monologue
  • A dramatic monologue is a poem in which a character speaks to one or more listeners. The reactions of the listener must be inferred by the reader.
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