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CENIT. URBAN TRANSPORT. Prof. Francesc Robusté. Washington DC, January 26, 2011. PRESENTATION CONTENT. CENIT (Barcelona Tech). KPI’s for urban mobility. Appraisal. Background of CENIT interesting for the WB.

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Prof francesc robust

CENIT

URBAN TRANSPORT

Prof. Francesc Robusté

Washington DC, January 26, 2011


Prof francesc robust

PRESENTATION CONTENT

  • CENIT (Barcelona Tech)

  • KPI’s for urban mobility

  • Appraisal

  • Background of CENIT interesting for the WB


Aim of cenit generation and transmission of knowledge about transportation

Aim of CENIT: generation and transmission of knowledge about transportation

CENIT presentation

  • Center for Innovation in Transport (CENIT) created in 2001 (2011: 10 years of innovation)

  • Consortium Technical University of Catalonia (Barcelona Tech) + regional government

  • 10% of public finance; 90% or turnover from competitive calls, companies and institutions

  • Catalan Traffic Service

  • Barcelona City Council

  • Metropolitan Transport of Barcelona (bus operator)

  • Port of Barcelona

  • Abertis

  • European Commission (DGTREN)

  • Spanish DoT

  • CEDEX

  • Spanish Ministry of Education & Science

  • Government of Catalonia


Cenit rdi in transport system service scientific perspective

CENIT RDi in Transport: system, service, scientific perspective

CENIT presentation

Administration

CSc & technicians

BSc

43% Civil Engineers

Engineers

  • Multidisciplinary and young team of 40 people

    • Scientific/ quantitative approach

    • Professional experience in implementations

    • Social, energy and environmental awareness

Francesc Robusté

Director of Transportation Dept.

Jaume Barceló

Director of Mobility and ICT Dept.

MateuTurró

Director of Transport Financing Dept.

  • CENIT leads transport research in Spain and cooperates with international experts

    83 % of staff are BSc and engineers

    18% of staff are PhD and teach at Barcelona Tech

    36% women


Prof francesc robust

CENIT presentation

Internationally renowned scientific research and dissemination

  • Papers published in prestigious journals:

    • Transport Research parts A, B, C, D, E

    • Transportmetrica

    • Transportation Science

    • IEEE

    • Transportation Research Record

  • Continuous training and improvements with exchanges and post-doc stays and sabbaticals:

    • Universityof California Berkeley

    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    • Rensselaer PolytechnicInstitute

    • Leeds University

  • Researchdissemination at both Spanish and international level:

    • Transportation Research Board Congress

    • Pan-American Congress

    • World Congress on Transport Research

    • International Symposium on Transportation and Traffic Theory

    • Spanish Transport Engineering Congress


Prof francesc robust

CENIT presentation

CENIT joins important initiatives and innovation projects in urban mobility at international level

  • Implementation of cutting-edge research in Barcelona with the Volvo’s Centre of Excellence for Future of Urban Transport(UC Berkeley):

    • RetBus

    • Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram for traffic

  • International agreements between CENIT and other transport research centers:

    • ITS center Tokyo

    • Urban Transport Systems Laboratory, EPFL, Lausanne

    • Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    • LET, Lyon

    • Universidad PontificiaBolivariana, Bucaramanga

  • CENIT is member of the European Conference of Transports Research Institutes (ECTRI)


Prof francesc robust

Urban mobility is complex

Urban mobility is a key factor for the competitiveness of metropolitan regions

  • XXIst century will likely be characterized by urban mobility

  • +50% of the world population lives in urban areas

  • Congestion problems: costs, accidents and climate change

  • Urban mobility has significant relation to GNP of a region

  • ICT bring emphasis in the operations and

  • management: Intelligent Cities

Tactical

Strategic

Industrial

ICT

Civil

Systems’ approach for complexity: operations, economics, demand behavior, appraisal, regulation, sustainability, finance…

Operational


Prof francesc robust

Eco-mobility

Transit

PV

Rail

bicycle

car

pedes-trian

motor-cycle

bus

BRT

taxi

shared / public

metro

commuter

rail

LRT

HOV

“BiCiNg”

carsharing

CENIT expertise

Urban mobility modes: are they a partition ?

  • Cars - traffic (congestion)

  • Public Transport: bus, BRT, LRT, metro

  • Taxis

  • Freight distributions

  • Bicycles

  • Pedestrians

  • Urban mobi-litymodes

CENIT expertise


Prof francesc robust

KPI’s for Urban Mobility

Conjoint / coupled layout, operations and pricing (1)

Cities are generic

Urban mobility is generic

(systems approach)

Accessibility

Yokohama

Network Flow

SFO

City Structure

how we use space

Mobility

how we move thru space

Nairobi

Functional parameters to describe mobility

Network Vehicle Density


Prof francesc robust

$/q(PC)

$/q(PT)

AC PT

AC PC

q(PT)

q(PC)

KPI’s for Urban Mobility

Conjoint / coupled layout, operations and pricing (2)

Street space

According to vehicle footprint, street space, demand and unit social costs, efficient mobility supply can be provided

Car

1

Transit

Demand

Any investment improving the car network, gives higher generalized costs (equilibrium) for all the users (Mogridge’s Paradox)

Mix

1


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KPI’s for taxi

Distribution of taxicab demand, revenues and supply according to hours

CSI = 5.9


Prof francesc robust

KPI’s for taxi

KPIs for evaluating Barcelona TAXI’s performance

  • Accuracy of KPIs depends on the statistical significance of the taxi sample (37 out of 10,000)

  • KPIs depend on many factors:time of day, taxi performance, zone, day of week, month…

  • KPIs have been calculated for every hour of week


Prof francesc robust

KPI’s for taxi

KPIs for evaluating Barcelona TAXI’s performance

  • Key Performance Indicators :

    • Gross income per hour

    • Services per hour

    • Distance in service

    • Distance “empty”

    • Time vacant

    • Time between services

    • Average service fare

    • Average service distance

    • Average service duration

    • Average speed

    • Annual kilometres

    • Annual gross income


Prof francesc robust

KPI’s for taxi

“Reasonable business” profitability

  • How muchshould a taxi driverearn?

  • Ourmethodologycalculates:

    • Costs:

    • AnnualIncome

  • Profitability:

  • Return On Equityadapted to taxi owners.

  • The asset is the taxi license.

  • Diesel comsumption

  • Mainteinance costs

  • Parking

  • Amortization

  • ...

  • +

  • Salary

  • The number of km per hour and year is themainindicator to calculate costs

  •  A basic salary is included in thedefinition of costs

  • The “ReasonableProfitability” is a orientativevaluegivenbythe Central Spanish Bank for Small and Medium Enterprises (SME)

  • 2009 results:

  • Annualaverageincomme: 42,379 €

  • Annualaverage costs (withsalary): 36,175 €

  • Benefits: 6,204 €

  • Desiredbenefits to reach a “ReasonableProfitability”: 6,484 €

Basic informationtomanageSupply-Fareissues


Prof francesc robust

GSI: Global Service Indicator

Indicators

Attributes

KPI’s for transit

KPIs for PUBLIC TRANSPORT in Barcelona Metropolitan Area

TAI: Territorial Accessibility Indicator

Bus-stops density

SAI: Service Accessibility Indicator

Frequency

IQI: Internal Quality Indicator

Comfort

RQI: Route Quality Indicator

Speed


Prof francesc robust

KPI’s for transit

KPIs for PUBLIC TRANSPORT in Barcelona Metropolitan Area

RQIm= 11,7 km/h

CV=0,10

TAIm=22,7 bus-stops/km2

C=0,61


Prof francesc robust

KPI’s for traffic - congestion

Objective and perceived KPIs for traffic congestion characterization

Indicator of intensity of demandimpact(IOID)

Objetive indicator of networkeffects(IOAR)

Objetive Congestionindicator(IOC)

OBJETIVE INDICATORS

Indicator of demandeffects(IOAD)

Indicator of temporal effects(IOAT)

Indicator of topology


Prof francesc robust

KPI’s for traffic - congestion

Objective and perceived KPIs for traffic congestion characterization

SURVEYS

Subjectiveindicator of demandeffect(ISAD)

Subjectiveindicator of networkeffects(ISAR)

Subjectiveindicator of temporal effects (ISAT)

SUBJECTIVE

INDICATORS

  • Subjectiveindicator of intensity of impactdemand(ISID)


Prof francesc robust

KPI’s for freight distribution

Implemented policies for improving urban freight distribution


Prof francesc robust

KPI’s for freight distribution

Urban freight distribution operations and use of L/U parking


Prof francesc robust

KPI’s for freight distribution

Loading and unloading parking space deficit in Barcelona


Prof francesc robust

Future of Urban Transport

European Parliament, 2010 (under publication)

Most of the innovation in urban mobility will come from the re-engineering of old concepts with the help of ICT: success or failure of implementation will depend on a package of ‘soft’ management measures that involve understanding stakeholder behavior and managing the system in an integrated, efficient and dynamic (real-time) way, rather than on ‘hard’ physical infrastructure or new vehicles. New energy sources for vehicles are tactical changes; however, the physical or functional aspects of overcoming a certain distance at a certain speed will remain.


Prof francesc robust

Towards a KPI of Urban Mobility (1)

Objective: give a city a “grade” about mobility and follow it

  • Attributes (some measured):

    • Unit social cost of overcoming a distance ($/pax-km)

      • Mobility behavior patterns

      • Land use patterns and city planning issues

    • Space distribution

    • Time distribution

    • Modal split

    • Safety

    • Reliability

    • Sustainability

    • (Energy)

    • (Emissions)

    • (ICT technology)

    • Social equity: income, gender, MRP (universal accessibility)

    • Perception (weights from local surveys)

Policy objectives?

Measure attributes

Decide some weights

Aggregate Mobility Indicator

(similar to CSI in transit)


Prof francesc robust

Towards a KPI of Urban Mobility (2)

Objective: give a city a “grade” about mobility and follow it

CSI

in

transit


Prof francesc robust

KPI for a corridor

What is the “optimal” transport mode for a given corridor?


Prof francesc robust

Appraisal

Appraisal (CBA + MCA integration): our approach

  • Socio-economic appraisal of transport projects:

  • Dealing with an investment proposal

  • Political input and/or decisions

  • Many stakeholdersand interests

“In front of huge problems, let’s bring small solutions”

  • In front of a complex system with many stakeholders and cross-perspectives, we claim for:

  • Simple and transparent appraisal methods

  • We should underline the process more than the algorithm or a particular outcome

  • Avoid black boxesor apparently sophisticated methods with leaks


Prof francesc robust

F2

ECONOMISTS

POLITICIANS

PLANNERS

ENGINEERS

PARTIAL EVALUATION E’ij

F1

Appraisal

Many options that are complementary

Multicriteria Anal.

Financial analysis

  • Hierarchy (AHP, nested logit)

  • Goal programming

Riskanalysis

  • Multi-objective programming

  • Group DSS

Sensitivity analysis

ELEMENTS

Weights (Delphi)

CBA

  • Costs

  • Benefits

CRITERIA (m)

Partial evaluation

ALTERNATIVES(n)

  • Qualitative

  • Over-classification (Electre)

  • Utility: U:Em[0,1]


Prof francesc robust

Appraisal

Contribution to transport projects appraisal

  • Mix: benchmarking

  • Effect-stakeholders matrix, applicable to several typologies of transport projects(highways, ports, airports, railways, freight centers and urban projects) to appraise their distributional effects

  • Visualization of all the effects: transfers, winners, losers...

  • Active cells

  • Cell zooming

  • Relevant cells

  • Tool for efficient and transparent decision making


Prof francesc robust

Appraisal

Incidence matrix (effects-stakeholders)

INCIDENCE MATRIX


Prof francesc robust

Appraisal

Appraisal process – Methodology flowchart

  • Effects vs. stakeholders

  • Incidence matrix (SE)

  • Active cells

  • Cell expansion

  • Transfers: cancel out in each row

  • Relevant cells  Cell coloring

  • Segment of preference (f + se)

  • NPV by rows and columns

  • Sensitivity and risk analysis


Prof francesc robust

Appraisal

Incidence matrix – Active cells


Prof francesc robust

Appraisal

Incidence matrix – Cell expansion


Prof francesc robust

Appraisal

Incidence matrix - NPV by rows and columns

  • Distributional effects:


Prof francesc robust

Appraisal

Strengths and transportability

  • Applicable to all transport projects typologies: (even to non-transport related projects)

Railway projects

  • Improvement of an existing line

  • Line reopening

  • Line restoration

  • Line closure

  • Traffic jams elimination

  • New HSL

  • Line electrification

  • Investments in interoperability

  • Cross-level elimination

  • Improvement of rail terminals

  • Line extension

  • Connections to ports, airports and terminals

  • Road pricing, new bus services, capacity expansion, safety...

Highway projects

META, GESTA

Port projects

  • Port enlargement, concession, …

Airport projects

  • Construction/expansion of terminal, baggage handling…

Urban projects

  • Construction/expansion of terminal, baggage handling…

  • Comprehension of distributional effects: Impacts and benefits for the different users & society


Prof francesc robust

A DSS for financial screening

Appraisal

DSS for financial acceptability screening

  • Application to tramway and metro projects financed by EIB:

  • Analysis of financed projects

  • Continent / areas

  • Country

  • Mode

  • Project types

  • Detect outliers


Prof francesc robust

A1

A2

w3

A3

w2

w1

Graphical tools in MCA (1)

w3

w3

A1

A4

A2

A5

A3

A6

A7

A8

w1 + w2 + w3 =1

w2

w2

w1

w1

36


Prof francesc robust

k

ejk

Área(Aj)

1

1

Carreteras

200

150

FC alta velocidad

Autopistas

100

50

0

Aeropuerto mercancías

FC convencional

Aeropuerto pasajeros

Graphical tools in MCA (2)

GHP (from AHP)

37


Prof francesc robust

Background of CENIT perhaps interesting for the WB

URBAN MOB ILITY


Prof francesc robust

Background of CENIT perhaps interesting for the WB

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF AIRPORTS

AIRPORT SYSTEM CAPACITY

AIRPORT

ACCESS

APPRAISAL

LOGISTICS : Physical Distribution, SCM, eLogistics, Logistic platforms, Logistic Activity Zones LAZ in ports, many-to-many distribution optimization

Guidelines for logistics centers and LAZ in ports

LAZ, LC & training in Mediterra-nean (EIB)


Prof francesc robust

Thank you for your attention!

Prof. Francesc Robusté

[email protected]

Dr. Sergi Saurí

[email protected]

Dr. Marta Sánchez-Borràs

[email protected]


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