NOTES: Venus 0.95 DEarth Surface Temp. = 900 OF, Greenhouse effect. Atm. Pressure = 90 x Earth's Atmosphere : 96% CO2, 3.5% Nitrogen. Clouds of sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, sulfur, indicating live volcanism? 2. Rotation : siderial--243 days, solar–117 days.
As the morning star (rising before sun, and Goddess of love.
Venus transit 2004 (conjunct sun)
Surface Temp. = 900 OF, Greenhouse effect.
Atm. Pressure = 90 x Earth's
Atmosphere: 96% CO2, 3.5% Nitrogen. Clouds of sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide,
sulfur, indicating live volcanism?
Rotation: sidereal day--243 Earth days, solar day–117 days.
3. Surface Features: 27% Lowlands, 65% rolling plains,
8% highlands. No oceans—way too hot!
Cones, faults, craters, multiple lava flows.
A. Ishtar Terra--US sized lava-filled basin—highlands—lower right.
B. Aphrodite—reflective volcanic cones--top.
Carl Sagan realized Venus was warmed
by what he called a ‘greenhouse effect’—
almost all carbon dioxide atmosphere very hot.
B. Maxwell Montez--Everest's height--100 km Diam.
Cleopatra, crater on it's flank
Reflective magnetite on volcanic peaks above 2.5 km.
Surface--young to 800 million years--crater cycle.
Every few million years, Venus may blow her top.
Atmosphere rotates much faster than surface
creating wind features--impact ejected to west, streaks near ridges.
100,000 small 'shield' volcanos--clusters due to hot spots, volcanic material near surface. No plumes show
Lava Channels--one 7,000 (!) km
Calderas over 100 km in diameter.
Visiting Spacecraft: 1962--Venera--Soviet surface landing.
1962-1975-Three Mariners (USA) rudimentary mapping.
2005now—Venus Express (Europe).
1989-90--Magellan (USA)--accurate radar maps.
Orbiter put up by European Space Agency (ESA).
Attempt to learn details of Venus’ atmosphere and movement,
unveil current volcanism and cause of super-rotation – the
'mismatch' in rotation speeds between the cloud tops
and the planet surface.