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Life Saver Program. What Is It?. A Fire Department Recognized Life Saver Residence Would Have the Following Features: A residential fire sprinkler system

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Life saver program

Life Saver Program


What is it

What Is It?

  • A Fire Department Recognized Life Saver Residence Would Have the Following Features:

    • A residential fire sprinkler system

    • Hardwired and interconnected smoke alarms on every floor, in every bedroom and immediately outside of bedrooms (Current Oregon Residential Code)

  • This Program Would be Applied to All Residential Occupancy Types

    • 1 & 2 Family Dwellings

    • Rental Houses, Apartments

    • Condominiums, Townhouses

    • Adult Foster Homes (5 or fewer persons)


About the idea

About the Idea

  • A Program Created to Encourage the Installation of Residential Fire Sprinklers

    • Modeled after the Super Good Cents Program which encouraged energy efficiency:

      • Signs were posted

      • Contractors/Realtors advertised this as a plus for marketing their homes

      • Contractors were behind it

      • The public became educated and wanted this


The goal

The Goal

  • Take a More Aggressive Approach at Promoting Residential Fire Sprinkler Systems by:

    • Providing education about the benefits of residential fire sprinklers

    • Creating a public desire/demand for residential fire sprinklers

      • Create a demand among homebuyers to have residential fire sprinkler systems

      • Create a demand among homebuilders to offer residential fire sprinklers as a positive life-saving option

  • Save Lives


What the bureau would do

What the Bureau Would Do

  • Post Signs at Qualified Residences to Help Sell the Program and Educate the Public

  • Educate Realtors

  • Educate Contractors

  • Educate the Media

  • Provide Answers on our Website

  • Answer Questions from the Public


The signs

The Signs


An acronym

An Acronym

Sprinklers +

Alarms

V irtually

E liminates

Risk

Life

I nsurance

F or

Everyone


Education

Education

  • The following slides show information we will use to promote the Program

  • To make things more personal, many of the slides have pictures of structure fires that happened in this area

  • References are noted for each slide which are available upon request. Sources include:

    • United States Fire Administration (USFA)

    • National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (CDC)

    • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)

    • National Fire Sprinkler Association (NFSA)

    • Medford Fire Department

    • Oregon State Fire Marshal (OSFM)

    • Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition (HFSC)

    • Oregon Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition

    • Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC)

    • National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

    • Residential Fire Safety Institute (RFSI)

    • Kirks Fire Investigation, John D. DeHaan, 5th Edition


Is the cost really worth it

Is the Cost Really Worth It?

Nobody wants to lose their loved ones…..

Nobody wants to lose their most valued possessions…..

In an unprotected residence, this likely could happen…..

In a Life Saver Fire Department Recognized Residence, this likely won’t happen!


The problem nationally

The Problem-Nationally

  • 2005 Statistics1

    • 396,000 home fires in the U.S.

    • 3,055 lives lost not including firefighters

    • 13,825 injured not including firefighters

    • $7 billion dollars lost in residential fires

  • 4 out of 5 Fire Deaths Occur in Homes2

  • Primary Victims3

    • Children

      • 2,500 children aged 14 or younger were injured

        or killed in residential fires (2002)

      • 1/2 under age 5 and 70% under age 10

    • Elderly

      • 2,300 adults age 65 or older were injured or killed

        in residential fires (2002)

      • 80% between ages 65-84

  • On average 100 Firefighters Die Annually,

    Most in Residential fires4

  • Smoking is the leading cause of fire-related deaths1

  • Cooking is the primary cause of residential fires1

Purdue Fire


The problem medford

The Problem-Medford

  • 2000-2004 Statistics1

    • 249 structure fires in residential occupancies

    • 9 fatalities

    • 31 civilian injuries

    • 6 firefighter injuries

    • $4,400,405 in residential property loss/damage

  • Average Fire Death Rate (1995-2004)

    • 12.0 per million (Oregon) 2

    • 14.6 per million (U.S.)3

    • 19.4 per million (Medford + Rural)1

  • In Oregon, One and Two Family Dwellings Account:3

    • For 86% of all residential fire deaths

    • For 82% of the estimated residential fire dollar loss

  • Two More Die in 2006 (Medford)1

Fairmount Fire


Medford fire fatalities

Medford Fire Fatalities


The dilemma

The Dilemma

  • Inspections the Fire Code Allows:

    • Commercial Occupancies

    • Exterior and Common Areas of Residential Buildings Containing 3 or More Units

  • Exempt From Fire Code Inspections:

    • Private Residences, Including:

      • One and Two Family Dwellings

      • Rental Houses, Apartments

      • Adult Foster Homes (5 or fewer persons)


The dilemma1

The Dilemma

Residential FiresDeathsCommercial FiresDeaths

1996428,0004,080150,500140

1997406,5003,390145,500120

1998381,5003,250136,000170

1999383,0002,920140,000120

2000379,5003,445126,000 90

20011396,5003,140125,000 80

2002401,0002,695118,000 80

20032402,0003,165117,500220

2004410,5003,225115,500 80

2005396,0003,055115,000 50

1 An additional 2,451 deaths as a result of 9-11-01

2 Rhode Island nightclub and two nursing home fires

Sources: U.S. Fire Administration


The facts asphyxiation

The Facts-Asphyxiation

  • Fire Consumes Oxygen and Produces Toxic Gases1

    • Oxygen concentrations below 10% will lead to unconsciousness and death

    • Carbon monoxide (CO) is the cause of most fire deaths

    • Hydrogen cyanide is produced from common polymers-coatings, paints, varnishes, foams. Aside from CO, this is probably the predominant toxic gas hazard

    • Less air available for combustion in a fire increases production of CO

Geneva Fire

Sources: NFPA 921; Kirk’s Fire Investigation


The facts burns

The Facts-Burns

  • Burns

    • Skin can be damaged when it reaches a temperature of 130o F

  • Radiant Heat Flux (kW/m2)

    • 1.4 Direct summer sun, potential sunburn in 30 minutes or less

    • 2.5 Common thermal radiation exposure while firefighting. This energy may cause burn injuries with prolonged exposure

    • 6.4 Skin blisters after 18 seconds with 2nd degree burn injury

    • 10.4 Skin blisters after 9 seconds with 2nd degree burn injury

    • 16 Skin blisters after 5 seconds with 2nd degree burn injury

    • 20 Heat flux on a residential family room floor at the beginning of flashover

Sources: NFPA 921; Kirk’s Fire Investigation


Test fire without sprinklers

Test Fire-Without Sprinklers

  • Corner of living room near stairs

  • Plastic wastebasket filled with newspapers

  • Ignition source a match

  • Water shielded from water spray by an end table

  • Adjacent vinyl/polyurethane furnishings

  • Wood paneling on walls

  • Carpeting on floor

  • Combustible ceiling tile

  • Draperies on walls

Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association


Test fire without sprinklers1

Test Fire-Without Sprinklers

Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association


Life saver program

Test Fire-Without Sprinklers

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

3” Below Ceiling

60” Above Floor

36” Above Floor

Temp.

0 60 120 180 240 300 360 420

Time (sec.)

Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association


Test fire without sprinklers2

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

CarbonMonoxide

0 60 120 180 240 300 360 420

Test Fire-Without Sprinklers

  • A concentration of as little as 0.04% (400 parts per million) carbon monoxide in the air can be fatal.

PPM

Time (sec.)

Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association


Test fire with sprinklers

Test Fire-With Sprinklers

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

3” Below Ceiling

60” Above Floor

36” Above Floor

Temp.

0 60 120 180 240

Time (sec.)

Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association


Test fire with sprinklers1

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

Carbon Monoxide

0 60 120 180

Test Fire-With Sprinklers

PPM

Time (sec.)

Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association


What about smoke alarms

What About Smoke Alarms?

  • Smoke Alarms (Detectors) Alone, are Not Enough

    • While functioning smoke alarms can save lives,

      it has been estimated that up to 50% of alarms are removed, disabled or not powered

    • Smoke alarms are missing in 2/3 of deadly residential fires1

    • Recent studies show children may not wake up even with smoke alarms sounding in their rooms2

    • From 2001-2004 there were 452 fatalities (391 fatal residential structure fires) in the U.S. in residences with working smoke alarms.

      (37% died sleeping; 29% died trying to escape)3

    • Smoke detectors have a 10-year design life

Carpenter Hill Fire


The facts flashover

The Facts-Flashover

  • Residents Do Not Survive Flashover

    • Caused when the fire spreads very rapidly when all combustible items in a room reach their ignition temperatures more or less simultaneously

    • Flashover can occur in as little as 3-4 minutes1

    • Window of escape time has been reduced form 17 minutes in the 1970’s to 3 minutes currently3

    • Post-flashover fires triple thenumber of victims2

    • Most victims in post-flashover fires are found remote from the room of origin2

Flashover


The facts furnishings fuel loads

The Facts-Furnishings & Fuel Loads

  • Heat Release Rates (HRR)(Btu/sec)

    • Small wastebasket 4-142

    • TV set 114-275

    • Cotton mattress 38-921

    • Polyurethane mattress 768-2495(+271-2025%)

    • Cotton easy chair 275-351

    • Polyurethane easy chair 1281-1888(+466-538%)

    • Polyurethane sofa 2960

    • Armchair (modern) 332-711

    • Recliner(synthetic padding/covering) 474-949

    • Christmas tree, dry 474-617

    • Pool of gasoline (2 quarts on concrete) 949

    • Living room or bedroom fully involved 2846-9487

Sources: NFPA 921; Kirk’s Fire Investigation


The facts furnishings fuel loads1

The Facts-Furnishings & Fuel Loads

TV

114-275 Btu/sec

5-10’ flame height

Wastebasket

4-142 Btu/sec

1-7’ flame height

Polyurethane Mattress

768-2495 Btu/sec

11-23’ flame height

Desk Chair

142-237 Btu/sec

7-9’ flame height

Minimum 497.3 Btu/sec HRR required for flashover in this typical bedroom

Sources: NFPA 921; Kirk’s Fire Investigation


The facts fire smoke spread animation

The Facts-Fire & Smoke Spread Animation

Source: NIST


Life saver program

Smoke reaches the smoke detector

A small fire starts in your home

Ceiling temp. reaches 165 degrees. Smoke begins to layer down

Ceiling temp. reaches 1,000 degrees, visibility is reduced to zero

Ceiling temp reaches 1,400 degrees. Flashover occurs engulfing all contents of the fire room and extending fire throughout home

0 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20

TimeLine (minutes)

You are awakened by the

smoke detector

You investigate and find a fire

You awaken other family members and go to a neighbor to call 911

You give the 911 operator the information and she notifies the fire dept.

The fire dept. responds

The fire room and all contents are completely destroyed. Heat damage extends throughout the entire house, burning or melting all items within 5 feet of the ceiling. Smoke has blackened all contents of the house. Windows and roof vent holes must be boarded-up. All drywall will need to be replaced and all contents replaced or restored. Extensive water damage exists from firefighting efforts. Average time of displacement...6 months to a year.

The fire dept. arrives, assesses the situation & applies 250 gpm to fire areas. Windows are broken and holes are cut in the roof to vent fire gases and smoke.

Your Fire Scenario

Source: Oregon Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition


Available personnel economics

Available Personnel & Economics

  • Serious Residential Fire w/o Fire Sprinklers

  • Average Manpower for Extended Duration

    • 15.5 personnel

    • 60.1 man-hours

    • Mutual aid required for

      other normal responses

    • + Overtime crews

    • + Overtime investigation


The solution

The Solution

  • Your Chances of Surviving

    a Fire Approach 100%1 with:

    • A fire sprinkler system and

    • Smoke alarms

  • Added Benefits

    • Much less property damage

    • Valued possessions will most likely be spared

    • You will not have to relocate for an extended period of time while your residence is being rebuilt

+

=>

Survival


Life saver program

Smoke reaches the smoke detector

A small fire starts in your home

Ceiling temp. reaches 165 degrees. The sprinkler head over the fire activates

Fire is controlled or completely extinguished. Sprinkler head continues to spray water at 15 gpm.

0 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20

TimeLine (minutes)

You are awakened by the

smoke detector

You investigate and find a fire

You awaken other family members and go to a neighbor to call 911

You give the 911 operator the information and she notifies the fire dept.

The fire dept. responds

Fire damage is limited to the objects in or near the initial fire. Heat damage is limited to the fire room. Heavy smoke damage is limited to the fire room. Water damage is limited to the sprinkler flow of 15 gpm (approx. 150 gal total). Average time of displacement from home...1-2 days.

The fire dept. arrives, assesses the situation and limits water damage by shutting down the water supply to the sprinkler system. The fire department then assists with initial clean-up operations.

Sprinkler System Fire Scenario

Source: Oregon Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition


Available personnel economics1

Available Personnel & Economics

  • Residential Fire with Fire Sprinklers

  • Average Manpower

    • 3 Personnel

    • 6 Man-hours

    • No overtime crews

    • Units available for another response

    • Possible short duration overtime Investigation


How do residential fire sprinkler systems work

How Do Residential Fire Sprinkler Systems Work?

  • The heat from the fire activates the head nearest the fire

The sprinkler system controls the fire with water before the atmosphere becomes untenable


Types of residential fire sprinkler systems

Types of Residential Fire Sprinkler Systems

  • Conventional System

    • Common underground supply, separate piping


Types of residential fire sprinkler systems1

Types of Residential Fire Sprinkler Systems

  • Network/Multipurpose System

    • Integrated into domestic plumbing


Are residential fire sprinkler systems expensive to install

Are Residential Fire Sprinkler Systems Expensive to Install?

  • Less Than You Might Think…

    • $1.00-$1.50 per square foot1

    • 1-1 ½% of total building cost2

    • About the price of upgrading carpet3

    • May be many times less than landscape sprinklers

Holly Street Fire


Cost breakdown study

$ Cost Breakdown Study $

  • Given:

    • $400,000 home (Average price for a 3,000 sq. ft. home)

    • Cost to install sprinkler system=$3,000

  • Cost Breakdown per Month:

    • $3,000 amortized over 30 years at 7.75%+$20.47

  • Tax Savings (28% federal; 5% state income taxes):

    • From deduction of interest on the loan:- 6.10

  • Insurance Savings (6 quotes--$90-165 per year):

    • Using middle quote ($135 per year)- 11.33

  • Total Expenditure per Month:$3.04

    Conclusion1:

    “Basically, for the price of a Happy Meal or a Starbuck’s coffee, your family can be protected by a residential sprinkler system,”

    Fred Benn, President of Advanced Automatic Sprinkler Company in Hayward, CA


Do all the heads go off

???Do All the Heads Go Off?

  • No.

    • 90% of all fires that occur inhomes are quickly controlled by a single sprinkler head1

Summit Fire


What about the water damage

???What About the Water Damage?

  • 93% of all fires that occur in homes are quickly controlled by a single sprinkler head flowing 13-25 gallons per minute1

  • Without fire sprinklers, the fire continues to grow exponentially. The fire department arrives 5-10 minutes later and puts hundreds to thousands of gallons on the out-of-control fire

  • Tests conducted by the Los Angeles Fire Department and the U.S. Fire Administration showed that damage caused by water in a sprinklered fire is substantially less than damage caused by a fire department hose streams in an identical unsprinklered fire2

W. Jackson Fire


What about accidental discharge

???What about Accidental Discharge?

  • Loss records of Factory Mutual Research show that the probability of a sprinkler discharging accidentally due to a manufacturing defect is only 1 in 16 million sprinklers per year in service1

  • Fire sprinkler systems are under the same pressure as residential plumbing systembut are tested at 2-3 times higher pressure during installation1

Mariposa Fire


Are sprinkler heads unsightly

???Are Sprinkler Heads Unsightly?

  • There are now a variety of residential sprinkler heads including concealed heads, which are hidden until they drop down upon activation. Also, all residential sprinklers can be factory painted to match ceiling and wall colors.

Orange St. Fire

Concealed Head


Is there a lot of maintenance

???Is There a Lot of Maintenance?

  • Virtually No Maintenance

    • Monthly-Visually inspect all sprinklers to insure against obstruction of spray. Sprinklers should never be painted

    • Monthly-Inspect all valves to ensure they are open*

    • Annually-Verify waterflow alarm activation*

      *Not required for multipurpose systems

Myers Court Fire


Are newer houses inherently safer

???Are Newer Houses Inherently Safer?

  • No

    • Whether or not a house is new, the fact is, the contents are thefuel that drives the fire. Modern furniture presents a huge fuel load, loaded with materials such as polyurethane foam which burns like gasoline and gives off toxic gases.

    • Drywall has some fire resistant features, however, modern truss and composite I-joist construction, when exposed to fire, can actually lead to structural failure faster than conventional lumber.

  • Smoke detectors can be disabled

Siskiyou Fire


Case studies

Case Studies

  • Residential Fire Sprinklers

    • Scottsdale, AZ(15 Year Study)1

      • Over 50% of houses sprinklered

      •  13 lives saved

      •  Over $20 million in property loss prevented

      •  Average fire loss was:

        • $2,166 in fire sprinklered residences

        • $45,019 in non-fire sprinklered residences

Piccadilly Fire


Case studies1

Case Studies

  • Residential Fire Sprinklers

    • Prince George’s County, MD

      • Ordinance Enacted in 1992

      • Residential Sprinkler System Reported Fire Incidents: 117

      • Residential Sprinkler Activations: 143

      • Total Fire Loss: $ 401,220.00

      •  Potential Fire loss: $ 38,230,000.00

      •  Reported Lives Saved: 154

      •  Injuries Reported (All minor in nature): 7

S. Ivy Fire


Benefits to the homeowner

Benefits to the Homeowner

  • Additional Life Assurance

    • Home fire sprinklers are designed to ensure a tenable atmosphere for escape

    • Chance of surviving fire approaches 100%

    • A residential fire sprinkler system is like having a firefighter 24/7 with an immediate response time 

  • Reduces Property Damage-

    • Controls fire before the destructive phase

    • Precious items will be saved

  • Insurance Savings

    • Possibly 5-15%

Court Street Fire


Benefits to community

Benefits to Community

  • Safer Community

    • Less injuries and deaths

  •  Less Property Damage

  •  Less Risk to Firefighters

  •  Saved $$$

    • Less overtime for suppression and investigation efforts

    • Less apparatus required for extended durations

Berrydale Fire


Life saver program

Source: Oregon Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition

Residential Sprinklers… the Choice is Yours!


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