貧窮經濟的奇蹟 - 從窮人銀行談孟加拉的發展. 簡麗環. 遙遠而陌生的國度 - 孟加拉. 機會主義者的樂園？ 冒險家的天堂？ 窮人的地獄？ 投資者的新大陸？. 孟加拉人民共和國. 成立於 1972年1月 。 2012 年孟加拉人口約為 1.9 億人，且為世界人口第八多的國家。 孟加拉屬開發中國家，平均個人平均所得僅 641 美元。. 黃麻 曾經為孟加拉主要的經濟來源，於第二次世界大戰至 1940 年代後期達到高峰，達到世界出口量的 80% 。
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Philosophy of the founder
1.Conventional banking is based on collateral, Grameen system is collateral- free.
2.Conventional banks look at what has already been acquired by a person. Grameen looks at the potential that is waiting to be unleashed in a person.
3.Conventional banks are owned by the rich, generally men. Grameen Bank is owned by poor women.
4. Conventional banks objective is to maximize profit. Grameen Bank's objective is to bring financial services to the poor, particularly women and the poorest.
5.Grameen Bank branches are located in the rural areas, conventional banks which try to locate themselves as close as possible to the business districts and urban centers.
6.There is no legal instrument between the lender and the borrower in the Grameen methodology.
Conventional banks go into 'punishment' mode when a borrower is taking more time in repaying the loan than it was agreed upon.
7.Conventional banks do not pay attention to what happens to the borrowers' families as results of taking loans from the banks. Grameen system pays a lot of attention to monitoring the education of the children.
1. Start with the problem rather than the solution
2. Adopt a progressive attitude.
3. Make sure that the credit system serves the poor, and not vice-versa: credit officers visit the villages, enabling them to get to know the borrowers.
4. Establish priorities for action vis-a-vis to the the target population
5. At the begining, restrict credit to income-generating production operations, freely selected by the borrower. Make it possible for the borrower to be able to repay the loan.
6. Lean on solidarity groups conventional banks which try to locate themselves as close as possible to the business districts and urban centers.
7. Associate savings with credit without it being necessarily a prerequisite.
8. Combine close monitoring of borrowers with procedures which are simple and standardised as possible.
9. Do everything possible to ensure the system's financial balance.
10. Invest in human resources
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