Yalom’s Therapeutic Factors. By Patti Higgins. Yalom’s Therapeutic Factors. Yalom (1995) defined therapeutic factors as "the actual mechanisms of effecting change in the patient" (p. xi).
Yalom’s Therapeutic Factors
Universality - feeling of having problems similar to others, not alone
Altruism - helping and supporting others
Instillation of hope - encouragement that recovery is possible
Guidance - nurturing support & assistance
Imparting information - teaching about problem and recovery
Developing social skills - learning new ways to talk about feelings, observations and concerns
Interpersonal learning - finding out about themselves & others from the group
Cohesion - feeling of belonging to the group, valuing the group
Catharsis – release of emotional tension
Existential factors – life & death are realities
Imitative behavior – modeling another’s manners & recovery skills
Corrective recapitulation of family of origin issues – identifying & changing the dysfunctional patterns or roles one played in primary family
Therapeutic Factors Inventory (TFI) - empirically derived comprehensive assessment of the presence or absence of the 11 therapeutic factors in a group (Lese & MacNair-Semands, 1997)
Yalom Q-sort assesses patients’ perceptions of therapeutic factors and consists of 60 statements representing 12 categories of therapeutic factors. A ranking of 1 to 60 is produced.
Bloch, Reibstein, Crouch, Holroyd and Themen's (1979) assessment uses independent raters to judge presence of therapeutic factors.