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Molecular Tools for Aiding and Breeding of Aquaculture Species. Masters in Aquaculture and Fisheries Genetic and Selection 2014 Tamara Moedas nº 47853; Catarina Ferreira nº 35671. Molecular Tools. Allozyme markers; Mitochondrial DNA markers (mtDNA);

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molecular tools for aiding and breeding of aquaculture species

Molecular Tools for Aiding and Breeding of Aquaculture Species

Masters in Aquaculture and Fisheries

Genetic and Selection

2014

Tamara Moedas nº 47853; Catarina Ferreira nº 35671

molecular tools
Molecular Tools
  • Allozyme markers;
  • Mitochondrial DNA markers (mtDNA);
  • Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP);
  • Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD);
  • Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP);
  • Microsatellite markers;
  • Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP);
  • Expressed sequence tags (ESTs).
slide4

Advantages:

  • Lowcost;
  • the rapidtechnique;
  • Ease to use;
  • Usuallyused in fisherygenetics.
  • Disadvantages:
  • Heterozygotedeficienciesdue to nullalleles;
  • Limitednumber of availableallozymelociprecludestheir use in large-scalegenome mapping;
  • Changesin DNA sequencereducethelevelofdetectablevariation
  • Are not selectively neutral.
slide6

Advantages:

  • Highlevelsofpolymorphism;
  • It evolves much faster than coding regions of DNA;
  • Multiple copies in each cell.
  • Disadvantages:
  • Backmutation;
  • Parallelsubstitution;
  • Rate heterogeneityormutational hot spots.
slide8

Advantage:

  • Codominant markers.
  • Disadvantages:
  • Low level of polymorphism;
  • Low power in revealing genetic variation;
  • Difficultand time-consumingto developmarkers in specieslackingmolecular information.
slide10

Advantages:

  • Highlevelsofpolymorphisms;
  • Allowsthesimultaneousanalysisofmanyloci;
  • Markers are inherited in dominantfashion.
  • Disadvantage:
  • Special equipment.
slide12

Advantages:

  • Analysismanylocisimultaneously;
  • Revealedpolymorphisms;
  • Inheritedas dominantmarkers;
  • Highreproducibility.
  • Disadvantage:
  • Special equipment.
slide14

Advantages:

  • HightAbundantin allspecies;
  • Distributedin thegenomeonallchromosomes;
  • Lociare small;
  • Polymorphic;
  • Codominant markers.
  • Disadvantage:
  • Hightexpensive.
slide16

Advantages:

  • Mostabundantpolymorphism in organism;
  • Revealhiddenpolymorphism;
  • Co-dominant markers.
  • Disadvantages:
  • Requiresspecializedequipment;
  • Large-scaleanalysis, dependson the availability of expensive, cutting-edgeequipment.
slide18

Advantages:

  • Identifygenes andanalyzetheirexpressionbyexpressionprofiling;
  • Rapidandat genes expressedin specifictissuetypes;
  • Developmentof cDNAmicroarrays;
  • Great value in genome mapping.
  • Disadvantage:
  • Identification of polymorphic ESTs is necessary for genome mapping.
biblography
Biblography
  • Liu, Z. J., Cordes, J. F., 2004. “DNA marker technologies and their applications in aquaculture genetics”. Aquaculture 238, pp. 1-37;
  • Magoulas, A.. “Application of molecular markers to aquaculture and broodstock management with special emphasis on microsatellite DNA”. CIHEM-Options Mediterraneennes, pp. 153-168;
  • Chauhan,T.,Rajiv, K.,2010. “Molecular markers and their applications in fisheriesandaquaculture”.UniversityofDelhi, Delhi, India.
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