Chapter 19
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Chapter 19. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics. 12 and 15 November, 2004. Overview. Comparing genome sequences has offered unprecedented insight into the nature and evolution of species. Most animals have essentially the same genes.

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Chapter 19

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Chapter 19

Chapter 19

Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics

12 and 15 November, 2004


Overview

Overview

  • Comparing genome sequences has offered unprecedented insight into the nature and evolution of species.

  • Most animals have essentially the same genes.

  • Duplication may be followed by structural or regulatory diversification.

  • Regulatory divergence may involve a change in location of expression, in the structure of a regulator, or in the arrangement of enhancers that respond to a signal.

  • Manipulation of pattern formation genes can lead to striking changes in morphology.

  • Hox gene cluster organization is conserved from Drosophila to mammals.

  • Morphological differences between Arthropod groups are explicable in molecular terms.

  • Conservation of pattern formation mechanisms is common across phyla.

  • Humans have only 25-30 thousand genes, and develop complexity from combinatoric factors.


Metazoan phyla

Metazoan Phyla


Genomic phylogeny

Genomic Phylogeny


Fgf genes in ciona and vertebrates

FGF genes in Ciona and Vertebrates


Duplication may be followed by divergence in both sequence and regulation

Duplication may be followed by divergence in both sequence and regulation.


Changes in pattern determining gene expression

Changes in Pattern-determining Gene Expression


Misexpression of pax6 causes abnormal eye formation

Misexpression of Pax6 causes abnormal eye formation.


Phenotypes of changes in pattern expression genes

Phenotypes of changes in pattern-expression genes


Duplication of ancestral gene leading to antp and ftz

Duplication of ancestral gene leading to Antp and ftz


Two ten and fourteen base pair changes in the enhancer have large consequences

Two, ten, and fourteen base pair changes in the enhancer have large consequences.


Consequences of ubx deletion and misexpression in the mesothorax

Consequences of Ubx deletion and misexpression in the mesothorax


Chapter 19

Swapping a repressor for an activator domain makes overexpressed Ubx produce a phenotype like that of overexpressed Antp.


Functional change in the ubx binding site

Functional change in the Ubx binding site


Hox genes in drosophila and mouse

Hox genes in Drosophila and mouse


Organization of hox gene clusters in drosophila and mouse

Organization of Hox gene clusters in Drosophila and mouse


Homeotic nature of the hoxb8 deletion mutant

Homeotic nature of the Hoxb8 deletion mutant


Chapter 19

A mutation in the Ubx enhancer led to altered expression of Ubx at the branchiopod - isopod split, and accounts for the presence of a maxilliped instead of a swimming limb in isopods.


Drosophila dll is repressed by drosophila ubx but not by shrimp ubx

Drosophila Dll is repressed by Drosophila Ubx, but not by shrimp Ubx.


Dll expression in several phyla

Dll expression in several phyla


Expression ob butterfly hindwings probably results from loss of ubx binding sites

Expression ob butterfly hindwings probably results from loss of Ubx binding sites.


Nonconservative fox2p changes may account for some of the speech abilities of humans

Nonconservative FOX2p changes may account for some of the speech abilities of humans.


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