Organizational structure
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ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE. STRUCTURE. REFERS TO THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE PARTS OF AN ORGANIZED WHOLE TYPES OF STRUCTURE 1. PHYSICAL STRUCTURE 2. SOSIAL STRUCTURE. PHYSICAL STRUCTURE.

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ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

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Organizational structure

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE


Structure

STRUCTURE

REFERS TO THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE PARTS OF AN ORGANIZED WHOLE

TYPES OF STRUCTURE

1. PHYSICAL STRUCTURE

2. SOSIAL STRUCTURE


Physical structure

PHYSICAL STRUCTURE

REFERS TO RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PHYSICAL ELEMENTS OF AN ORGANIZATION: BUILDINGS, MACHINES, ROOMS, GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS, ETC.

EXAMPLE: LAYOUT OF ROOMS, MACHINES, BUILDINGS, ETC.


Social structure organizational structure

SOCIAL STRUCTURE (ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE)

REFERS TO RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SOCIAL ELEMENTS IN ORGANIZATION: PEOPLE, UNITS, POSITIONS, ETC.

FRAMEWORK OF TASK AND AUTHORITY RELATIONSHIPS IN A COMPANY THAT COORDINATES AND MOTIVATES EMPLOYEES TO WORK TOGETHER TOWARD A COMMON GOAL.


Organizational culture

ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

SET OF SHARED COMPANY VALUES AND NORMS THAT SHAPE THE WAY EMPLOYEES AND GROUPS INTERACT WITH ONE ANOTHER


Organizational design

ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN

THE PROCESS OF CREATING AN ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND CULTURE SO THAT A COMPANY CAN PURSUE ITS BUSINESS MODEL PROFITABLY.


Business model and organizational design

BUSINESS MODEL AND ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN

IMPLEMENTING BUSINESS MODEL REQUIRES GOOD ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN, WHICH CREATES A STRUCTURE AND CULTURE THAT MOTIVATES AND COORDINATES EMPLOYEES TO PERFORM AT A HIGH LEVEL IN GROUPS , TEAMS, DEPARTMENTS. GOOD ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN PROVIDES ALSO THE COMPANY TO SOLVE PROBLEMS STEMMING FROM MISALIGNED GOALS, ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT, AND LACK OF COOPERATION.


Business model and organizational design1

BUSINESS MODEL AND ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN

GOOD EMPLOYEES MOTIVATION AND COORDINATION ENHANCE A COMPANY’S ABILITY TO CREATE PRODUCTS THAT CUSTOMERS WANTS TO BUY. THIS WILL INCREASE OPERATING REVENUES THAT FINALLY LEADS COMPANY TO INCREASE PROFITABILITY.


Business model and organizational design2

BUSINESS MODEL AND ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN

THE ABSENT OF PROBLEMS STEMMING FROM MISALIGNED GOALS ENHANCES COMPANY’S ABILITY TO OPERATE MORE EFFICIENTLY. THE IMPACT THEN OPERATING COST WILL REDUCE AND THIS LEADS TO AN INCREASE IN COMPANY PROFITABILITY.


Contingency approach to organizational design

CONTINGENCYAPPROACH TO ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN

A TYPE OF ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN THAT DEPENDS ON THE CHANGING FORCES IN A FIRM’S COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT.


Differentiation and integration as key elements of organizational social structure

DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION AS KEY ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIAL STRUCTURE

  • DIFFERENTIATION

    • HORIZONTAL

    • VERTICAL

  • INTEGRATION


Elements of organizational social structure

ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIAL STRUCTURE

  • HIERARCHY OF AUTHORITY

    • DISTRIBUTION OF AUTHORITY (POWER)

    • AUTHORITY GRANTS POSITION HOLDER CERTAIN RIGHTS: GIVE DIRECTION, PUNISHMENT, REWARD, AND ALLOCATE RESOURCES.

  • DIVISION OF LABOR

    • DEFINES THE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSIBILITIES

    • CREATES UNITS OR DEPARTMENTS

  • COORDINATION MECHANISMS

    • RULES AND PROCEDURES

    • SCHEDULES

    • COMMUNICATION


Dimensions of organizational social structure

Dimensions

Size

Administrative component

span of control

Spesialization

Standardization

Formalization

Centralization

Complexity

Typical operational

Total number of organization members

% of total number of employees that have administrative responsibilities

Total number of subordinates over whom a manager has author

Number of specialities performed within an organization

Existence of procedures for regularly recurring events or activities

Extent to which rules, procedures, and communications are written down

Concentration of authority to make decisions

Vertical differentiation (number of hierarchical levels) and horizontal differentiation (number of unit within the organization)

DIMENSIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIAL STRUCTURE


A comparison of mechanistic organic and bureaucratic organizations

A COMPARISON OF MECHANISTIC, ORGANIC, AND BUREAUCRATIC ORGANIZATIONS


Characteristics of weber s ideal bureaucracy

CHARACTERISTICS OF WEBER’S IDEAL BUREAUCRACY

  • A FIXED DIVISION OF LABOR

  • A CLEARLY DEFINED HIERACHY OF OFFICES, EACH WITH ITS OWN SPHERE OF COMPETENCE

  • CANDIDATES FOR OFFICES ARE SELECTED ON THE BASIS OF TECHNICAL QUALIFICATIONS AND ARE APPOINTED THAN SELECTED

  • OFFICIALS ARE REMUNERATED BY FIXED SALARIES PAID IN MONEY

  • THE OFFICE IS PRIMARY OCCUPATION OF THE OFFICE HOLDER AND CONSTITUTES A CAREER

  • PROMOTION IS GRANTED ACCORDING TO SENIORITY OR ACHEIVEMENT AND IS DEPENDENT UPON THE JUDGMENT OF SUPERIORS

  • OFFICIAL WORK IS TO BE SEPARATED FROM OWNERSHIP OF THE MEANS OF ADMINISTRATION

  • A SET OF GENERAL RULES GOVERNING THE PERFORMANCE OF OFFICE. STRICT DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL IN CONDUCT OF THE OFFICE IS EXPECTED


Various types of structure

VARIOUS TYPES OF STRUCTURE

  • (1) SIMPLE STRUCTURE

  • (2) FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE

  • (3) MULTIDIVISIONAL STRUCTURE

  • (4) MATRIX STRUCTURE

  • (5) HYBRID STRUCTURE

  • (6) NETWORK STRUCTURE


Simple structure

SIMPLE STRUCTURE

  • USED IN SMALL (START UP) COMPANIES

  • NO (LITLE) DIFFERENTIATION BOTH VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL.

  • COORDINATION THROUGH FACE TO FACE COMMUNICATION

  • OWNER OR FOUNDER PLAY A DOMINANT ROLE IN MANAGING COMPANY


Functional structure

FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE

  • A STRUCTURE THAT GROUPS PEOPLE TOGETHER BECAUSE OF THEIR EXPERTISE OR THE TYPE OF ACTIVITY THEY DO (TYPICALLY INTO DEPARTMENTS)


Functional design

FUNCTIONAL DESIGN


Functional design1

FUNCTIONAL DESIGN

GENERAL MANAGER

MANUFACTURING

PURCHASING

ACC. & FIN

ENGINEERING

MARKETING


Advantage of a functional structure

ADVANTAGE OF A FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE

  • COORDINATION ADVANTAGE

    • EASY COMMUNICATION AND SHARE INFORMATION

    • QUICK AND EFFECTIVE DECISION MAKING

    • EASIER LEARNING OF EXPERIENCE

  • MOTIVATIONAL ADVANTAGE

    • IMPROVE EMPLOYEES MOTIVATION

    • STRONG VALUES AND NORMS IN DEPARTMENTS

    • CLEAR CAREER LADDER


Disadvantage of a functional structure

DISADVANTAGE OF A FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE

  • COORDINATION PROBLEMS WHEN COMPANY GETS SUCCESS AND GROWS

  • AS COMPANIES ATTRACT CUSTOMERS WITH DIFFERENT NEEDS.

  • AS COMPANIES EXPAND NATIONALLY AND GLOBALLY.


Divisional structure

DIVISIONAL STRUCTURE

  • A STRUCTURE THAT GROUPS EMPLOYEES BY FUNCTION BUT ALLOWS THEM TO FOCUS THEIR ACTIVITIES ON A PARTICULAR PRODUCT LINE OR TYPE OF CUSTOMER.


Multidivisional structure

MULTIDIVISIONAL STRUCTURE

GENERAL MANAGER

AUTOMOTIVE

AUTOMOTIVE

TEXTILE

PURC

ENG

MRK

ACC

PURC

OPR

MRK

ACC

ELECTRONIC

PURC

ENG

MRK

ENG


Matrix design

MATRIX DESIGN

CEO

MARKETING

HRD

FINANCE

OPERATION

PRODUCT A

PRODUCT B

PRODUCT C

PRODCT D


Struktur sederhana

STRUKTUR SEDERHANA

  • Biasanyaterjadipadaorganisasi yang barudibentuk (misalnyausahawiraswasta yang barudimulai) atauorganisasi yang memangs/>engajadibuatkecil (mis. tempatpraktekdokter). Tingkat diferensiasidankompleksitas RENDAH.


Struktur fungsional

STRUKTUR FUNGSIONAL

  • Ketika struktur sederhana tidak lagi mencukupi, ketika organisasi berkembang dengan tugas-tugas yang semakin kompleks, maka biasanya dibentuk struktur FUNGSIONAL.

  • Fungsi atau Tugas-tugas yang sama dikelompokkan menjadi satu. Misalnya, perusahaan manufaktur


Struktur multidivisonal

STRUKTUR MULTIDIVISONAL

  • Sering juga disingkat organisasi- M, yakni pengelompkkan berdasarkan kesamaan dalam hal:

    • proses produksi/produk, misalnya GM dikelompokkan berdasarkan divisi Cadillac, Chevrolet, dll

    • tipe konsumen, misalnya dibagi menjadi konsumen inidvidu, konsumen industri, dan pemerintah

    • wilayah gegorafis.

  • Konglomerat atau holding company tergolong jenis ini, namun tidak memisahkan berdasarkan produk melainkan jenis industri (bergerak dalam beberapa jenis industri).


Organizational structure

  • Perbedaan pokok KONGLOMERAT dengan organisasi-M lainnya: eksekutif puncaknya melihat organisasi lebih pada konteks keuangan (seberapa menguntungkan anak-perusahaan tersebut), sehingga factor profitabilitas menjadi acuan utama dalam menilai anak-anak perusahan yang dimiliki.

  • Kelemahan stuktur Multidivisi: tingkat profitabilitas seringkali justru lebih rendah daripada struktur fungsional.

  • Mengapa? Karena terjadi redudansi (setiap anak-perusahaan memiliki bagian penjualan, akunting, produksi, dan pembelian sendiri-sendiri)


Organizational structure

Kelebihannya:

  • Ukuran, selalu lebih besar daripada organisasi fungsional. Ukuran memberi competitive advantage, karena organisasi yang lebih besar akan memiliki daya tawar yang lebih kuat terhadap lingkungan.

  • Lebih memberikan pengalaman yang luas kepada calon-calon pemimpin/eksekutif, yakni mereka yang melewatkan masa tugas di kantor pusat (memiliki perpektif lebih luas daripada organisasi fungsional)

  • Akuntabilitas yang lebih baik, yakni dengan menganggap divisi-divisi sebagai profit-centre

  • Lebih responsif terhadap perubahan kebutuhan konsumen (karena spesialiasi memungkinkan setiap divisi lebih terfokus pada bidangnya masing-masing).


Struktur matriks

STRUKTUR MATRIKS

  • Struktur Matriks dimaksudkan untuk menggabungkan kelebihan struktur fungsional (yang lebih efisien) dengan kelebihan sturktur divisional (yang lebih fleksibel dan resposif).

  • Seorang staff pada waktu yang bersamaan bertanggung-jawab terhadap dua atasan sekaligus


Struktur hibrid

STRUKTUR HIBRID

  • Yakni struktur yang bersifat campuran (sebagian mengambil dari tipe sturktur A, sebagian lagi dari tipe struktur B). Sebagai contoh, divisi R&D menggunakan struktur mariks, seemntara divisi-divisi lain tetap menggunakan struktur fungsional.

  • Kadang-kadang perancang oragnisasi memang sengaja mengambil bentuk-bentuk campuran ini, yakni untuk menggabungkan kelebihan dari dua atau lebih tipe struktur. Selain itu, untuk memungkinkan organisasi menerapkan struktur yang tepat bagi kebutuhan yang berbeda dari unit-unitnya.


Struktur network

STRUKTUR NETWORK

  • Struktur NETWORK terjadi karena organinasi melakukan outsourcing secara besar-besaran

  • Kolaborasi di antara perusahaan-perusaahan kecil (karena skala operasi masing-masing terlalu kecil untuk bisa bersaing sendiri di pasar internasional)

  • Contoh: Benetton, yang terdiri dari ratusan produsen pakaian kecil dan ribuan outlet penjualan yang bersifat franchise.

  • Struktur Network menghilangkan semua bentuk komunikasi dan hubungan-kontrol yang bersifat vertikal, dan menggantinya dengan hubungan lateral.


Organizational structure

  • Faktor penyebabnya: perubahan tekonologi yang cepat, siklus hidup produk yang makin pendek, pasar yang terfragmentasi dan terspesialisasi

  • Tantangan terbesar struktur Network: bagaimana mengembangkan dan mempertahankan identitas sebagai sebuah organisasi dan kebersamaan tujuan, di antara keragaman geografis dan longgarnya kaitan antara kepentingan dan aktivitas.


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