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主動微波電路設計. Microwave Active Circuit Design. 黃凡修 Fan-Hsiu Huang [email protected] Scope of Course. Active Devices (transistor & diode). Passive Components (transmission line & lump LC). Microwave Communication & Applications. Concept and Design

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Microwave Active Circuit Design

黃凡修Fan-Hsiu Huang

[email protected]


Scope of Course

Active Devices

(transistor &


Passive Components

(transmission line

& lump LC)


Communication &


Concept and Design

of Microwave and Millimeter-wave

Circuits (non MIC or MMIC technology)

Microwave and Millimeter-wave

Subsystem and System


Microwave Active Circuit Design


[1] K. Chang, “RF and Microwave Circuit and Component Design for

wireless systems”, John Wiley & Sons, 2002.

[2] G. Gonzalez, "Microwave Transistor Amplifier Analysis and Design",

Prentice Hall, 1996.


[1] David. M. Pozar, “Microwave Engineering,” 3rd Edition,

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004.

[2] B. Razavi, “RF Microelectronics”, Prentice Hall, 1998

[3] 呂學士,"微波通訊半導體電路",全華科技, 2001.


Microwave Active Circuit Design


1. Introduction

2. Passive components and transmission line

3. Microwave transistor and diode

4. Low-noise amplifier and broadband amplifier

5. Oscillator and phase noise

6. RF mixer circuit

7. RF switch circuit

8. Power amplifier

9. IC packaging technology and its concern

10. Microwave related circuits and systems


Microwave Active Circuit Design

Prerequisites & Grading Policy


Electromagnetics I & II.

•Grading Policy:

– Homework: 20%

(2 reports for paper review, 4 pages for each, choosing two topics as introduced in this course )

– Midterm: 40%

– Final Project: 40%

(Circuit design and presentation, choosing one of

the papers you studied)


Radio-Frequency Bands (3)

Absorption by the atmosphere in clear weather


Microwave Communication System (1)

RF transceiver including passive components

(SAW filter, LC matching network) and

active circuits (switch, PA, LNA, mixer, VGA,

VCO, synthesizer…)


Microwave Communication System (2)

Digital RF system

Analog RF system


Microwave Communication System (4)

  • Channel access method used by various radio communication technologies.
  • The methods allow multiple users simultaneous access to a transmission system.
  • TDMA (Time division multiple access)
  • FDMA (Frequency division multiple access)
  • CDMA (Code division multiple access)

WirelessLocalAreaNetwork (WLAN)

A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices using some wireless distribution method (typically spread-spectrum or OFDM radio), and usually providing a connection through an access point to the wider internet. This gives users the mobility to move around within a local coverage area and still be connected to the network. Most modern WLANs are based on IEEE 802.11 standards, marketed under the Wi-Fi brand name.


Specifications for 2G Communication

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)

DCS (Distributed Control System)


RF ICs and Modules (1)

LDMOS PA for VHF band

GaAs X-band PA

SiGe PA for WiMAX

GaN 40 W Class-E PA

SiC 10 W Class-AB PA


Microwave/millimeter-wave Applications (1)

Microwave Oven Specification

AC Power: 120 Volts AC 60 Hz (13.3A) 1500 Watts, Single phase, 3 wire grounded

Output Power: 1200 Watts full microwave power (IEC60705)

Frequency: 2450 MHz

Magnetron: 2M246-050GF

Timer: 0 ~ 99 min. 99 sec.


Microwave/millimeter-wave Applications (3)

94 GHz MMW image obtained from a scanning radiometer


Microwave/millimeter-wave Applications (4)

Australian Radio Tele-scope using

an InP amplifier (100 GHz)

THz differential absorption radar


S-parameter (1)

Generalized scattering parameters have been defined by K. Kurokawa.

These parameters describe the interrelationships of a new set of variables (ai , bi).

The variables ai and bi are normalized complex voltage waves incident on and reflected from the ith port of the network.

They are defined in terms of the terminal voltage Vi , the terminal current Ii , and an arbitrary reference impedance Zi ,where the asterisk denotes the complex conjugate:


S-parameter (2)

Limitations of lumped models At low frequencies most circuits behave in a predictable manner and can be described by a group of replaceable, lumped-equivalent black

boxes. At microwave frequencies, as circuit element size approaches the wavelengths of the operating frequencies, such a simplified type of model becomes inaccurate. The physical arrangements of the circuit components can no longer be treated as black boxes. We have to use a distributed circuit element model and s-parameters.


Network Analyzer (1)





Vector network analyzer (VNA): The vector network analyzer, VNA is a more useful form of RF network analyzer than the SNA as it is able to measure more parameters about the device under test. Not only does it measure the amplitude response, but it also looks at the phase as well. As a result vector network analyzer, VNA may also be called a gain-phase meter or an Automatic Network Analyzer.

DUT must be measured under a small input power (small-signal operation)


Network Analyzer (2)

Formats of S parameters

Log scale plot


Smith chart


Network Analyzer (3)

Large Signal Network Analyzer (LSNA): The large signal network analyzer, LSNA is a highly specialized for of RF network analyzer that is able to investigate the characteristics of devices under large signal conditions. It is able to look at the harmonics and non-linearties of a network under these conditions, providing a full analysis of its operation. A previous version of the Large Signal Network Analyzer, LSNA was known as the Microwave Transition Analyzer, MTA

 [S]p,f,n

p: input power

f: operation frequency

n: harmonic order


Network Analyzer (4)

  • X-parameters are a unified way of describing nonlinear device-under-test (DUT) behavior:
  • Harmonics
  • Large signal input & output match
  • Large signal isolation and transmission

Network Analyzer (5)

Sum of the harmonics can transform the frequency-domain

signals into time-domain signals.