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Weather. State Objectives 4.c, 4.e, 4.h. . Discussion. What are some ways in which weather affects your everyday life?. What is Weather?. Atmosphere layer of gases surrounding Earth. Weather is the conditions of the atmosphere. Temperature Air Pressure Humidity Wind Clouds

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weather

Weather

State Objectives 4.c, 4.e, 4.h.

discussion
Discussion

What are some ways in which weather affects your everyday life?

what is weather
What is Weather?
  • Atmosphere layer of gases surrounding Earth.
  • Weather is the conditions of the atmosphere.
    • Temperature
    • Air Pressure
    • Humidity
    • Wind
    • Clouds
    • Precipitation
    • Main cause for changes in weather is energy from the sun.
temperature
Temperature
  • Indicates the amount of heat(kinetic energy) in the atmosphere.
  • Represents the speed of the molecules.
    • The higher the temperature, the faster the air molecules are moving.
  • Warmer air rises and cooler air sinks which causes convection currents.
  • Measured with a thermometer.
    • Standard unit is Fahrenheit (°F)
    • SI Unit is Celsius (°C)
air pressure barometric pressure
Air Pressure/Barometric Pressure
  • Air has weight because it has mass.
  • Air pressure is a measure of the force of air being exerted on a given area of Earth’s surface.
    • As temperature increases pressure decreases.
      • Cool air is more dense, which causes it to sink (high pressure).
    • As altitude increases air pressure decreases.
weather and air pressure
Weather and Air Pressure
  • Changes in pressure indicated a change in weather is approaching.
      • Lowpressure systems are associated with clouds & precipitation.
      • Highpressure systems are associated with clear skies.
    • Steady pressure indicates current conditions will continue.
  • Measured with a barometer

in inches of mercury or in millibars.

humidity
Humidity
  • Amount of water vapor in the air.
  • Relative humidity is a percentage of the amount of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount of water vapor it can hold at that temperature.
    • The warmer the temperature the more water vapor it can hold.
    • Saturated means the air is holding 100% of the water vapor it can hold at that temperature.
  • Measured with a hygrometer or a psychrometer.
dew point
Dew point
  • Dew is the water vapor that has condensed on a surface into a liquid.
    • Depends on two factors:
      • Amount of water vapor in the air
      • Temperature near the surface
  • Dew point is the temperature at which water vapor condenses into a liquid.
slide12
Wind
  • Caused by differences in air pressure
    • Air moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure
  • Wind Speed
    • Measure of how fast the air is moving.
    • Measured with an anemometer.
  • Wind Direction
    • Direction from which the wind is coming, NOT the direction it is blowing
      • Ex. North winds blow from N to S
    • Measured with a wind vane.
global wind patterns
Global Wind Patterns
  • Blow steadily across Earth in paths that are thousands of kilometers long
    • Steer weather in certain directions (usually west to east in the U.S.)
  • Caused by thermal energy from the sun
    • The sun does not heat the surface evenly causing uneven heating of the atmosphere.
types of global winds
Types of Global Winds
  • Surface winds at low altitudes:
    • Trade winds: blow from east to west near the equator.
    • Westerlies: blow from west to east in the mid-latitudes.
    • Coriolis Effect: Earth’s rotation causes winds to curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
types of global winds1
Types of Global Winds
  • Jet streams at high altitudes are bands of strong winds (up to 350 km/h) near the top of the troposphere at the northern and southern boundaries of the prevailing westerlies.
    • Race from west to east
clouds
Clouds
  • Clouds form when air rises, cools, and condenses. They are classified according to their height and shape.
types of clouds
Types of Clouds
  • 1. cumulus- a low, puffy cloud that forms on sunny days when heat from the surface causes warm air to rise.
  • 2. stratus- a low, gray, sheet-like cloud that forms when warm, moist air moves over cooler ground. They are seen most often during the winter and may bring steady rain.
types of clouds1
Types of Clouds
  • 3. cumulonimbus (thunderheads) - vertical clouds that may be over four miles tall. They form where cold air forces warm air to rise quickly.
  • 4. cirrus- high, featherlike clouds. They are the highest clouds in the sky. They do not produce precipitation.
precipitation
Precipitation

Precipitation – occurs when drops of water or crystals of ice become too large to be suspended in a cloud and fall in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail.

the water cycle
The Water Cycle
  • Earth’s surface is about 70% water and it exists in all three states.
  • The water cycle is the constant movement of water on Earth.
  • The Sun provides the energy for the water cycle.
parts of the water cycle
Parts of the Water Cycle
  • 1. Evaporation occurs when water changes from a liquid into a gas after gaining heat energy from the Sun.
  • 2. Transpiration is the evaporation of water from the leaves of plants.
parts of the water cycle1
Parts of the Water Cycle
  • 3. Condensation occurs when water vapor changes into liquid water to form clouds or fog.
  • 4. Precipitation occurs when water droplets fall to Earth.
what is an air mass
What is an Air Mass?
  • An airmassis a large body of air that develops over a particular region.
  • It has characteristics of the area over which it develops.
  • Cold, dry air masses come from Canada and warm, dry air masses develop over Mexico.
fronts
Fronts
  • A front is a boundary between two air masses.
  • When two fronts meet, the cold air mass will move under the warm air mass because the cold air is more dense.
types of fronts
Types of Fronts
  • 1. A coldfront forms when a cold air mass pushes under a warm air mass. Cumulus clouds form and thunderstorms may occur.
  • 2. A warm front forms when a warm air mass moves up and over a cold air mass. Cirrus and stratus clouds form and light, steady precipitation occurs.
warm and cold fronts
Warm and Cold Fronts

WARM FRONT

COLD FRONT

types of fronts1
Types of Fronts
  • 3. A stationary front forms when a warm air mass meets a cold air mass but neither advances.
  • 4. An occluded front forms when a fast-moving cold air mass overtakes a slower warm air mass. Weather is similar to, but less severe than, the weather along a cold front.
stationary and occluded
Stationary and Occluded

OCCLUDED

STATIONARY

meteorologists
Meteorologists
  • A scientist that studies the weather & uses the data to make predictions about weather.
    • Observe patterns & create weather maps
  • A weather forecast is a prediction of present conditions based on observations and data.
weather maps
Weather Maps
  • Satellite map: allow meteorologists to monitor weather on the global scale
  • Radar Map: uses electromagnetic waves to monitor velocity and altitude.
weather map symbols1
Weather Map Symbols

HIGH PRESSURE SYMBOL

LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM

severe weather
Severe Weather
    • Thunderstorms: brief, intense storms produced by rapidly rising clouds.
      • May produce hail
      • Lightning is huge electrical discharges.
  • A tornado is a violent, whirling wind that moves in a narrow path over land.
watches and warnings
Watches and Warnings
  • A watch is issued when conditions are favorable for severe weather to occur.
  • A warning is issued when severe weather has been sighted.
  • The National Weather Service monitors weather and issues watches and warnings when appropriate.
what is a hurricane
What is a Hurricane?
  • A hurricane is a low-pressure system that forms over tropical oceans.
  • Also called typhoons or tropical cyclones.
  • Named for the Mayan god Hurakanwho blew his breath across the water.
disturbances depressions and storms
Disturbances, Depressions, and Storms
  • A tropical disturbance is an area of organized convection that originates in the tropics. It has no eye or rotation.
  • A tropical depression is a cyclone that has a maximum wind speed of 38 mph.
  • A tropical storm has a wind speed between 39 mph and 73 mph.
conditions required for hurricane formation
Conditions Required for Hurricane Formation
  • Warm ocean waters of at least 80° F.
  • High humidity in the troposphere.
  • An atmosphere that quickly cools with altitude.
  • A distance of at least 300 miles from the equator.
  • A surface system with convergent winds.
  • Low wind shear. Wind shear is the rate of wind speed or direction change with altitude.
parts of a hurricane
Parts of a Hurricane
  • The eye is the circular area of calm, relatively light winds at the center of a hurricane. It is the area of lowest pressure.
  • The eyewall is the ring surrounding the eye that contains the highest wind speeds.
  • Rainbands are bands of heavy rain that spiral outward from the storm’s center.
when hurricanes occur
When Hurricanes Occur
  • The Atlantic hurricane season lasts from June 1- November 30.
  • These dates include about 97% of hurricanes.
  • Most occur from August to October.
tracking hurricanes
Tracking Hurricanes
  • Hurricanes can be tracked using satellites, radar (near land), and hurricane hunters.
  • Hurricane Hunters is the nickname of the 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron of the Air Force Reserve. They are based in Biloxi, Mississippi.
  • Gathers data including wind direction and speed, pressure, temperature, and humidity from the planes altitude to the water’s surface.
paths of hurricanes
Paths of Hurricanes
  • Depends on where the hurricane forms.
  • Trade winds cause hurricanes to move east to west near the equator.
  • As hurricanes move north, they begin to turn back to the east.
effects of hurricanes
Effects of Hurricanes
  • High winds
  • Heavy rain and flooding
  • Tornadoes after landfall
  • Storm surge is the rising wall of water that comes ashore with a hurricane. It causes the most damage and is responsible for 90% of deaths.
storm surge
Storm Surge
  • Storm Surge Animation
naming hurricanes
Naming Hurricanes
  • Hurricanes are named to ease communication between the government, forecasters, and the public.
  • Naming Atlantic storms began in 1953.
  • 2013- Andrea, Barry, Chantal, Dorian, Erin, Fernand, Gabrielle, Humberto, Ingrid, Jerry, Karen, Lorenzo, Melissa, Nestor, Olga, Pablo, Rebekah, Sebastien, Tanya, Van, Wendy
rating hurricanes
Rating Hurricanes
  • The Saffir-Simpson scale is uses wind speed to rate the strength of hurricanes.
  • Category 1- 74-95 mph Minimal
  • Category 2- 96-110 mph Moderate
  • Category 3- 111-130 mph Extensive
  • Category 4- 131-155 mph Extreme
  • Category 5- 156+ mph Catastrophic
strongest hurricanes in history
Strongest Hurricanes in History
  • Typhoon Tip (1979) was the most intense (lowest pressure- 870 mb) hurricane in history.
  • Hurricane Wilma (2005) was the strongest Atlantic hurricane.
  • Typhoon Nancy (1961) had maximum sustained winds (two minute average) of 213 mph.
size of typhoon tip
Size of Typhoon Tip
  • Had a diameter of almost 1,400 miles.
hurricane katrina 2005
Hurricane Katrina (2005)
  • Costliest hurricane in U.S. history ($81 billion in damage).
  • Fifth deadliest hurricane (1,836 deaths)
  • Crossed Florida as a Category 1 but gained strength in the Gulf of Mexico.
  • Made landfall in Louisiana and Mississippi on August 29 as a Category 3.
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