1705 471 principles of natural resources and environmental conservation
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1705 471 หลักการอนุรักษ์ทรัพยากรธรรมชาติและสิ่งแวดล้อม Principles of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation. การอนุรักษ์ระบบนิเวศ (I) เพ็ญแข ธรรมเสนานุภาพ penkhae.t@msu.ac.th. Lecture Outline. Earth System Science Earth System Cycles Earth System Connection

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1705 471 Principles of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation

(I)

penkhae.t@msu.ac.th


Lecture Outline

  • Earth System Science

  • Earth System Cycles

  • Earth System Connection

  • Global Change ()

  • Biomes (Ecosystem)

    • Terrestrial biomes

    • Aquatic biomes


Earth As a System

()

Earth System Science



Atmosphere

Biosphere

Hydrosphere

Geosphere

Anthrosphere

The Planet Earth


The Geosphere

The geosphere is the solid Earth that includes continental and oceanic crust as well as the various layers of the Earth's interior.


Soils ()

Living organism

()


The Biosphere

The biosphere is the life zone of the Earth and includes all living organisms, including man, and all organic matter that has not yet decomposed.


1% Ar, 0.03% CO2

+ small, variable amounts of water vapor

The Atmosphere

The atmosphere is the gaseous envelope that surrounds the Earth and constitutes the transition between its surface and the vacuum of space.

78% N2

21% O2


Temperature (C)

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

70

100

60

Thermosphere

Mesopause

50

80

Mesosphere

40

Altitude (Km.)

Altitude (mi.)

60

Stratopause

30

Stratosphere

40

20

Ozone Layer

20

10

Tropospause

Troposphere

0

-120

-80

-40

0

40

80

Temperature (F)

Atmospheric Profile



  • An ecosystem consists of

  • biotic components - the living organisms

  • abiotic components - non-living factors, such as light,

  • temperature, water, nutrients, topography, etc.


Liquid

The Hydrosphere

The hydrosphere includes all water on Earth. In one respect, 71% of the earth is covered by water and only 29% is terra firma. The water existed in all three states: solid (ice), liquid (water), and gas (water vapor).

Water vapor

Solid

Global distribution of water (reproduced with the kind permission of Ramsar)


The Water Cycle of The Earth System

Evapotranspiration

Rainfall

Transpiration

Evaporation

Runoff

Ocean

Infiltration

River

Percolation

Subsurface water

Ground water

Bedrock


a

Waste

gases

ATMOSPHERE

Precipitation

Evaporation

Sea

evaporation

e

f

MAN

LANDSCAPE

OCEAN

c

Groundwater

Flow

Flood

Flow

g

h

Water

supply

d

WATER BODIES

River

flow

Waste

Water flow

The Water Cycle of The Earth System

Management

Of Soil/ Veget.

b



Earth System Cycles

The cycling of energy, water, and certain chemical elements ties the system together

Energy from the Sun enters the top

of the atmosphere; some is reflected

back to space while the rest powers

the Earth system

Water evaporates from the surface,

condenses or freezes, falls back to the

surface, runs-off or sinks into the soil,

flows to aquifers, rivers, the oceans

The chemical elements C, N, P, and

S cycle among living organisms, the

atmosphere, sediments, soils, and

water bodies


Cycle:

  • Energy

  • Water

  • Biogeochemical


  • 30-40 3

  • (Macronutrient) 0.2-1

    • Major macronutrient

    • Minor macronutrient


  • (Micronutrient) 0.2


  • bio chemical Geo Biogeochemical Cycle


  • 3

    • (Hydrologic cycles)

    • (Atmospheric cycles)

    • (Lithospheric cycles)


(Hydrologic Cycle)

    • (evaporation)

    • (precipitation)

    • (Condensation)

    • (Transpiration)


-

-


(Atmospheric Cycles)


    • (Nitrogen fixation)

      • Electrochemical fixation

        • - symbiotic bacteria Rhizobium

        • - (Free-living nitrogen fixers) Azotobacter Clostridium


  • (Ammoniphication)

    • () ammonifying bacteria Pseudomonas Proteus Ammonification


  • (Nitrification)

    • Nitromonas

    • Nitrobacter

    • Nitrification


  • (Denitrification)

    • denitrifying bacteria Pseudomonas, Thiobacillus Micrococcus denitrificans

    • denitrification


  • (Nitrogen, N2)

    - (inorganic)

    - (organic)

  • (Ammonia, NH4+)

  • (NO2-, NO3-)


(Lithospheric Cycles)


  • 1 10

  • () () Phosphatizing bacteria



  • (H2S) (SO2-) (SO4-)

  • desulfovibrio thiobacilli



    • 2


  • Atmosphere(Climate)

  • Ozone, Chemical elements

  • Temperature, Humidity, Cloud ,Precipitation

Components

Water&Snow

Aquatic fauna

Aquatic flora

Bio-chemical

  • Soil &Geology

  • Water

  • Air

  • Biogeochemical

  • Living Things

  • Land Use

  • & Land Cover

  • Bio-diversity

  • Climate

  • Biochemical

Phenomena


(Global Change)

/ (biosphere) - / (normal)


HUMAN

Land Use and Land Cover Change

Elevated CO2

Atmospheric Composition

CN

Creative


Earth System Connections

Phenomena on all scales are connected together

some volcanic eruptions alter the atmosphere globally for years

El Nino in the tropical Pacific affects weather for months, even in the United States

passage of a weather system can spawn tornadoes which cut a swath through a forest triggering the process of forest succession

These and other connections are fundamental to the Earth system.


Solar energy

Earth radiates heat

Back into space

Atmospheric green house gasses from natural sources and human activity

Acid rain

Green house gas trap heat

Burning of fossil fuel

release carbon dioxide

Industrial release

CO2,NOX,SO2

Deforestation reduces

absorption of CO2

Earth absorb

Solar radiation

Domestic and industrial

activities produceCFC

Agriculture produces

CH4&NO2

Vehicles emit CO2


Water Cycle

Precipitation

Evaporation

Ground water

Water uptake

Runoff

Sea

Transpiration


The relationship between discharge and runoff

precipitation

discharge

As time passes (measured along the x-axis) discharge increases as precipitation falls


Biogeochemical Cycle

CH4,CO2,N2O,SO2

Acid rain

Acid rain

CO2

CH4

O2

PO4,NO3

Eutrophication

C

Light

CO2

C

C

C


Land Use and Land Cover Change

to

Climate Change

to

Global Change


Linkages between Human Causes and Land Use and Cover

Climate Change

Human Activities

Land Use / Land Cover

Physical Process

of

Surface Land

Biochemical Process

of

Land Surface

Regional Climate

Water Resources

Agriculture

Coastal Zone

Natural Ecosystem

Feedback to

Global Change


Phenomena:()

  • (Storm)

  • (Flooding)

  • (Drought)

  • (Global Warming)

  • ?


SOIL EROSION

DROUGHT

FLOODING


COASTAL FLOODING&COASTAL EROSION


(Terrestrial biomes)

    • (Tropical rain forest)

    • (Tropical deciduous forest)

    • (Tropical savanna and grassland)

    • (Desert)

    • (Temperate grassland)

    • (Temperate deciduous forest)

    • (Taiga, Coniferous forest)

    • (Tundra)


(Tropical rain forest)

  • 25-27

  • ABCD


(Tropical savanna and grassland)

  • Like tropical forests, savannas are found near the equator but in areas having less annual rainfall. This climate supports grasslands with only scattered trees and shrubs.


(Deserts)

  • Deserts occur around 20-30 degrees north and south latitude and in other areas that have 25 centimeters of less of precipitation annually. Desert life is some what sparse but exhibits fascinating adaptations to life in a dry environment.

  • 20



(Temperate grasslands)

  • Temperate grassland experience a greater amount of rainfall than deserts but a lesser amount than savannas. They occur at higher latitudes than savannas but, like savannas,are characterized by perennial grasses and herds of grazing mammals.


(Temperate deciduous forests)

  • Temperate deciduous forests occur in areas having warm summers, cold winter, and moderate amounts of precipitation. The trees of this forest lose their leaves and remain dormant throughout the winter.

  • 30-55


(Taiga)

  • The taiga, or northern coniferous forest, consists of evergreen, cone-bearing trees. The climate of this biome is characterized by long, cold winters with little precipitation.


(Tundra)

  • The tundra encircle the top of the world. This biome is characterized by desert like levels of precipitation, extremely long and cold winter, and short, warmer summers.

  • Ice desert

  • permafrost



(Aquatic Biomes) (Freshwater Ecosystem)

  • (Lentic system)

  • (Lotic system)


(Lentic Ecosystem)

  • Lentic = Lenis = to make calm

  • Morphometry (the physical characteristics of a lake )

Maximum length (l)

Maximum width or breadth (b)

Volume (v)

Maximum depth (zm)

Mean depth(z)

Relative depth (Zr)

- Size

- Shape

- Depth

- Bottom form


Geomorphology of lake basins

  • Tectonic

  • (Volcanic activity)

  • (Land slide)

  • (Glacial activity)

  • (Man made: reservoir)


(Lotic Ecosystem)

  • Lotic = Lotus = to wash

  • (Subsurface water)

  • (Surface water)


Water Dynamics

  • Riffle = the most common type of turbulent fast water

  • Pool = the general class of slow water


  • . G system


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