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vs.

TRIPs vs. CBD




Third world battles for fruit of its seed stocks.

Bill Paul (Wall Street Journal, 1984, June 15)

You have heard ofSTAR WARS, now there areSEED WAR

United Nations documents disclose thatisnt giving out its prized blackseeds, while, andare restricting the availability of variousvarieties. The documents also show that is restricting, and that is holding back on

varieties, among other examples."

SEED WAR


17VOC1770

SEED WAR


1876

SEED WAR


  • 1908

  • 1920 Vavilov

  • 1968 UPOV

  • 1968

  • 1971 (CGIAR)

  • 1973 (IBPGR)

  • 1978 UPOV 19781981118

  • 1979 Mooney SEED OF THE EARTH

  • 1984 Bill Paul SEED WAR

  • 1987 FAO

SEED WAR


  • 1991(IBPGR) IPGRI

  • 1992 CBD

  • 1994 GATTTRIPs

  • 1995 WTO

  • 2001

CGIARConsultative Group on International Agricultural Research

IBPGRInternational Board for Plant Genetic Resources

IPGRIInternational Plant Genetic Resources Institute

CBD Convention on Biological Diversity

GATTGeneral Agreement on Tariffs and Trades

TRIPs Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

UPOV Union internationale pour a Protection Des Obtentions

Vgtales


CGIAR




ICRISATSO

CIMMYT

CIAT

IRRI

(2005) 673,056


Bioprospecting


Bioprospecting

refers to the search for new in situ sources of chemical compounds, genes, proteins, microorganisms for pharmaceutical and other products of potential economic value.


George Forrest, 1873 ~ 1932

Plant Hunter


1967 Indiana University Dr. Thomas Brock 80

Thermus aquaticus Yellowstone type-1 (Taq YT-1)

DNA polymerase enzyme

Hoffman LaRoche ()

200510

K.B. Mullis 1988 polymerase chain reaction Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993

Opal Terrace at Mammoth Hot Springs


1997 Diversa Corp. (San Diego)Diversa 12.5

Alliance for the Wild RockiesInternational Center for Technology AssessmentEdmonds Institute Montana resident

1998

2000

25


80

Catharanthus roseusMadagascar periwinkle,

1757

1950-60National Cancer Institute

vincristine (Oncovin)vinblastine (Velban)1985 1


  • Boehringer Ingelheim1986-89

    • Illinois,

    • 8-125,000

  • CIBA-GEIGY 1989(); 1992()

    • ; Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute

    • 4,000 (1991)

  • Monsanto 1989

    • Missouri

    • 9,000

  • National Cancer Institute 1960-1980; 1986

    • 10,000


Abbott Laboratories

Bristol-Myers Squibb

Eli Lilly

Glaxo Group Research

Inverni della Beffa

Merck & Co.

Miles, Inc.

Pfizer

Phyto-pharmaceuticals

Rhone-Poulenc Rorer

Shaman Pharmaceuticals

Sterling Winthrop

Syntex Laboratories

Upjohn Co.

  • Pharma-genesis 1990

    • 15

    • 502,000-3,000

  • SmithKline Beecham 1987

    • KewMorris Virginia Pennsylvania

    • 10-152-3,000 17,800

  • Sphinx Pharmaceuticals 1990

    • Biotics, Ltd.

    • 315,000


John Harshberger 1895

Ethnobotany

...


PaiwanKasupokan

http://www.sasps.cyc.edu.tw/illus2/chedon.htm


H.C. Conklin, 1954

6LangaParinaBilinli...AressasLangaamapla kilala[Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.]10 x 50 cm(Quisumling, 1947, p.148)... Langatawag kugum buladlad(Buchnera urticifolia R.Br.)...


32%

The North


The North



X

DNA

TRIPs 1994

  • 27-1

  • 27-2

UPOV

Union Internationale pour la Protection des Obtentions Vgtales

  • 27-3(b)() ()(sui generis) WTO

IPR


UPOV

Algeria, Armenia, Barbados, Burundi, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Fiji, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Indonesia, Jamaica, Kingdom of Bahrain, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritius, Oman, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Thailand, Tonga, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, Zambia

1991 34

1978 27


Titles in force

Titles issued

51

UPOV

53,798

7,535


PVP in the South: who is claiming their rights?

GRAIN, 2000


GRAIN 2001

http://www.grain.org/publications/reports/asiaipr.htm


GRAIN 2001

http://www.grain.org/publications/reports/asiaipr.htm


  • 7

  • CBD


IPR


(RAFI, 1995)

IPR


(RAFI1995)

IPR


Patent

:

  • /

  • /

  • /

IPR


Biopiracy


Mexico Nahua Indian coyote coyuche

Guatemala Ixcoco

1990, Sally Fox

Homalomena occulta

140 Redlands Nursery1995PBR PBR19/6/98

BIOPYRACY


111

11

9

7

2

2

Plant Breeders Wrongs ?

Whos Getting Pirated?

RAFI - HSCA 1998

http://www.rafi.org


Telopea speciosissimaPope's Weromba Cardinal

Waratah

http://www.rafi.org/genotypes/

  • Miss Lucelle Pope1955

  • 1988

  • 1994PBR


1993

University of Mississippi Medical Center

(no. 5,401,504)

1997

http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/library/kohler/1761_088.jpg


1999

r

Ayahuasca

Banisteriopsis caapi (Spr. ex Biesb.) Morton

BIOPIRACY


Neem

From: G. Dutfield 2000 p.:132-134

Azadirachta indicaThe Neem Tree

1992W.R. Graces

# 5,124,349

Neem

1994# 0,436,257

20005

BIOPIRACY


Basmati

Texamati

Basmati

RiceTec , Inc.

#5,663,484 (2/09/97)

Basmati

BIOPIRACY



1

1988 (UNEP)

1991 Nairobi

1992 (Rio Earth Summit)

1993 12

1999 168

Convention on Biological Diversity

CBD


15

a.

c.

e.

g.

Prior informed consent


8

h.

j.


CBD

WTO(TRIPs)

FAO(IUPGR)

CGIAR

UPOV

WIPO

UN(ECOSOC)

CBD vs. TRIPs


CBD vs TRIPS


1993


/FAO Conference Resolution 5/89

  • DUS



2002

2001

2002


2002


()






FAO

  • Commission on genetic resources for food and agriculture

  • 1983: 113International Undertaking on Plant Genetic ResourcesResolution 8/83

  • 1989: UPOVUndertaking Resolution 4/89 "Farmers' Rights"Resolution 5/89

  • 1991: Resolution 3/91


  • FAO

    1993: International UndertakingCBDResolution 7/93

    1996: 150 Global Plan of Action (GPA) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and AgricultureLeipzig Declaration GPA

    1996: Composite Draft Text of the International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources.


    FAOComposite Draft Text of the International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources. September 1999

    Art. 12,

    101

    Art. 13,

    CBD

    Art. 14,

    Art. 15,

    FAO


    2001-11-03: International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

    FAO

    Article 9 Farmers Rights

    Nothing in this Article shall be interpreted to limit any rights that farmers have to save, use, exchange and sell farm-saved seed/propagating material, subject to national law and as appropriate.

    • PART IV - The multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing

      • Article 10 Multilateral System of Access and Benefit-sharing

      • Article 11 Coverage of the Multilateral System

      • Article 12 Facilitated access to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture within the Multilateral System

      • Article 13 - Benefit-sharing in the Multilateral System


    12-3

    Recipients shall not claim any intellectual property or other rights that limit the facilitated access to the plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, or their genetic parts or components, in the form received from the Multilateral System;


    Article 13 - Benefit-sharing in the Multilateral System

    Exchange of information:

    Access to and transfer of technology

    Capacity-building

    Sharing of monetary and other benefits of commercialization

    recipient who commercializes a product, shall pay an equitable share of the benefits arising from the commercialization of that product, except whenever such a product is available without restriction to others for further research and breeding, in which case the recipient who commercializes shall be encouraged to make such payment.


    FAO


    FAO


      • vs.

      • vs.

    • vs.


  • Kloppenburg, 1988

    ()


    http://users.ox.ac.uk/~wgtrr/cira.htm

    Third World Network

    1994

    Community Intellectual Rights Act

    1995

    Inter-American Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

    . Full compensation for the use of their . genetic resources in . seeds, medicine. knowledge of plant .

    http://users.ox.ac.uk/~wgtrr/oas.htm


    The Manila Declaration Concerning The Ethical Utilisation of

    Asian Biological Resources Developed, 1992

    Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples UN, 1993

    The Mataatua Declaration UN, 1993

    The COICA Statement South American UNDP Consultation, 1994

    The Suva Statement South Pacific UNDP Consultation, 1995

    The Sabah Statement Asian UNDP Consultation, 1995

    Community Intellectual Rights ActThird World Network 1994

    Draft of the Inter-American Declaration on the Rights of

    Indigenous Peoples1995.

    Republic of the Philippines Executive Order No. 247 1995

    Andean Pact Common System on Access to Genetic Resources

    1996


    WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization)

    • Roundtables for Protection of Rights of Holds of Traditional Knowledge, Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities. July 1998, November 1999

    • Fact Finding Mission on Traditional Knowledge, Innovations and Culture, June 1998 March, 1999


    http://www.wipo.int/globalissues/databases/tkportal/index.html


    http://seed.agron.ntu.edu.tw


    TRIPs 27-3(b)

    UPOV 1991

    UPOV 1978

    WTO TRIPsUPOV


    - TRIPs


    • 7

    • CBD


    AkwKon

    (ag-way-go)Mohawk

    (COP-7Conference of the Parties)

    VI/7 A1


    AkwKon


    AkwKon


    Ecuador

    InterAmerican Development Bank

    1.)

    2.)

    3.) (cartel)


    1995

    247

    1996 Andean Pact

    1998 Costa Rica

    107

    1998 Organization of African Unity


    • COSTA RICAThe INBIO-Merck

    • Research Agreement

    • BRAZILThe NCIUNIP Agreement

    • COLOMBIAThe BioAndes Case

    • CAMEROONNational Cancer

    • Institute and the Missouri Botanical

    • Garden, USA

    • FIJIThe USP & SIDR(Scotland)

    • Agreement

    • PHILIPPINESCommercial Research

    • Agreement (1998)

    • UNITED STATESThe

    • YellowstoneDiversa Agreement

    Columbia University

    School of International and Public Affairs

    Environmental Policy Studies



    Taiwan

    Disclosure requirement by Genetic Resources Act,

    not by Patent Act

    Disclosure of origin in patent applications

    Switzerland

    EU

    US

    African

    Group

    Brazil et al.



    PP10438~10704

    Rhododendron oldhamii ()

    1968

    John Patrick

    Oakland

    1973Franklinton C&T Nursery Dr. John T.

    Thornton Mr. Patrick

    Fourth of July

    1981Plant Development Services Inc.Robert Edward

    LeeFourth of July

    14

    1998


    Iris formosana has been added to our Taiwanese collections this year, this has withstood several winters in our field despite its tender reputation.

    http://212.38.89.151/

    19969 B. Wynn-Jones

    RHS Garden, 1998, 123:441-3

    Chloranthus

    Arisaema

    Aconitum Hydrangea



    Application and approval of bio-prospecting

    The first class bio-prospecting

    The second class bio-prospecting


    Preliminary examination by competent authority

    Asked to revise the proposal by competent authority

    Application of an acquisition

    All required documents submitted

    Inform/Consult with landholder, shcolars, et al.

    Preliminary examination finished

    Permission certificate issued

    Acquisition approved

    Acquisition rejected

    First class bio-prospecting


    Asked to revise the proposal by competent authority

    Application of an acquisition

    Preliminary examination by competent authority

    All required documents submitted

    Preliminary examination finished

    Consult with scholars

    The competent authority to examine the agreements

    Application accepted

    Application rejected

    Acqisition approved

    The landholder informed. Representatives of the holder, applicant and competent authority to reach an agreement concerning bioprospecting activities, material transfer, and benefit sharing

    Agreement do not reach, Acquisition rejected

    Permission certificate issued

    Second class bio-prospecting


    Post supervision and control

    1. Prospecting report

    • The progress of the bio-prospecting;

    • Biological materials collected and the conditions of their transportation;

    • Any information that is associated with the collected materials.


    Post supervision and control

    2. Commercial implication derived from genetic material

    • The first class bio-prospecting

    the applicants should proceed with the whole procedure of application and approval of the second class

    • The second class bio-prospecting

    the applicants must notify the competent authority and the landholder


    Post supervision and control

    3. Export of genetic materials acquired by certified activities

    • deposit a copy of each live sample to due germplasm bank

    • Material Transfer Agreement

    Dead specimens are free to export, without application to the competent authority

    • Material Transfer Agreement


    Post supervision and control

    4. Disclosure of origin in patent applications

    Patent seekers should submit to Patent Office:

    • The permits for exploring genetic resources in Taiwan

    • Describing the origins of genetic resources they used for the invention


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