Kepler s laws
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Kepler’s Laws. Physics 113 Goderya. Chapter(s): 4 Learning Outcomes: ALL. Johannes Kepler (1571 – 1630). Used the precise observational tables of Tycho Brahe (1546 – 1601) to study planetary motion mathematically. Found a consistent description by abandoning both. Circular motion and.

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Kepler’s Laws

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Kepler s laws

Kepler’s Laws

Physics 113 Goderya

Chapter(s): 4

Learning Outcomes: ALL


Johannes kepler 1571 1630

Johannes Kepler (1571 – 1630)

  • Used the precise observational tables of Tycho Brahe (1546 – 1601) to study planetary motion mathematically.

  • Found a consistent description by abandoning both

  • Circular motion and

  • Uniform motion.

  • Planets move around the sun on elliptical paths, with non-uniform velocities.


Kepler s laws of planetary motion

Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion

  • The orbits of the planets are ellipses with the sun at one focus.

c

Eccentricity e = c/a


Eccentricities of ellipses

Eccentricities of Ellipses

1)

2)

3)

e = 0.1

e = 0.2

e = 0.02

5)

4)

e = 0.4

e = 0.6


Eccentricities of planetary orbits

Eccentricities of Planetary Orbits

Orbits of planets are virtually indistinguishable from circles:

Most extreme example:

Pluto: e = 0.248

Earth: e = 0.0167


Planetary orbits 2

Planetary Orbits (2)

  • A line from a planet to the sun sweeps over equal areas in equal intervals of time.

  • A planet’s orbital period (P) squared is proportional to its average distance from the sun (a) cubed:

(Py = period in years; aAU = distance in AU)

Py2 = aAU3


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