Integrating lecture laboratory and literature using case studies
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Integrating Lecture, Laboratory, and Literature using Case Studies . Ann T.S. Taylor Chemistry Department Wabash College Crawfordsville, IN 47933. What are your non-content course goals?. The Context: Che 361. Required course for Chemistry majors Most Chem minors also take the course

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Integrating lecture laboratory and literature using case studies

Integrating Lecture, Laboratory, and Literature using Case Studies

Ann T.S. Taylor

Chemistry Department

Wabash College

Crawfordsville, IN 47933


What are your non content course goals

What are your non-content course goals?


The context che 361

The Context: Che 361

  • Required course for Chemistry majors

  • Most Chem minors also take the course

  • Organic II prerequisite

  • Typical enrollment: 24-30 students, 8-12 per lab section

  • Three 50 minute class periods and one three hour lab per week


Che 361 biochemistry non content goals

Che 361: Biochemistry non-content goals

  • Cooperative learning strategies

  • Transferrence and connections

  • Application, not only memorization

  • Cultivate intellectual curiosity

  • Requires critical thinking skills

  • Oral and written communication skills

  • Use bioinformatic and modeling tools


Common features my cases

Common features my cases

  • A short real-life story

  • Reading review and primary literature articles

  • Short in-class small group activities which connect the case and lecture

  • Laboratory activities that directly relate to the case

  • Computational activity


The case of the tainted tacos

The Case of the Tainted Tacos

A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods which integrates laboratory, lecture, and literature


Unit goals

Unit goals

Students should be able to:

  • Explain transcription and translation

  • Design PCR probes for a sequence of interest

  • Understand how transgenic organisms are made

  • Reinforce principles of enzymology, protein structure, and membrane transport

  • Resolve conflicting data sets

  • Understand the broader ethical implications of using GM foods


The case of the tainted tacos1

The Case of the Tainted Tacos

The Setup Story


Questions generated by story

Questions generated by story

  • How are GM foods made?

  • How do GM foods “work”?

  • Are GM foods safe for the environment?

  • Could weeds become resistant to herbicides?

  • Are GM foods safe for humans?

  • Do farmers really benefit from using GM products?

  • Should I eat GM foods? Do I already eat GM foods?


Case teaching strategies

Case teaching strategies

  • Common study areas

  • Specialization

  • Jigsawing


Questions all groups study

Questions all groups study

  • What are the most common genetic modifications of foods

  • How genetic modifications are made

  • How genetic modifications can be detected, and how these methods work

  • Design the primers that are used in the lab


Specialist groups

Specialist groups

Farmers

  • Study the economic impact of GM foods and how RoundUp Ready products work

    Entomologists

  • Study the mechanism of Bt products and their impact upon other insects

    Immunologists

  • Look at methods to predict allergenicity


Linking literature

Linking Literature

  • Guided reading questions

  • Small group problems

  • Literature searches


Example farmers

Example: Farmers

Read three papers, then answer questions such as:

  • Why do farmers use genetically modified plants?

  • When do farmers benefit economically from using GM crops?

  • Why does RoundUp (glyphosate) affect plants but not animals?

  • How does glyphosate affect EPSPS, both structurally and kinetically?

  • Describe in detail how weeds that are resistant to RoundUp differ from wildtype (normal) plants.


Economic impact of gm crops

Goals:

Better pest management

Increase yield

Reduce pesticide use

More flexibility

Disadvantages:

Only profitable when infestation cost is greater than tech cost

Unknown effect on soil ecology

Development of “superweeds”

Economic impact of GM crops


How does roundup work

How does RoundUp work?


Integrating technology

Integrating technology

  • Presentations

  • Research techniques with guided directions

  • Tools and tutorials from the internet


Roundup resistance modeling

RoundUp Resistance modeling


Entomologist modeling

Entomologist modeling


Computational analysis of cry9 for allergenicity

Computational analysis of Cry9 for allergenicity

  • Does it have homology to known allergens?

    • BLAST search of allergen database

    • STGSST (422-428) is identical to a sequence in aAspergillus fumigatus allergen

  • Is the homology in a hydrophilic region?

    • No—from a computational tool discussed in one of the papers


Linking lab

Linking lab

Do an experiment related to the issue!

  • Sources:

    • Adapt an existing lab

    • Adapt a “real world” technique

    • Adapt an experiment from one of the papers

    • Adapt a published teaching lab (Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, Journal of College Science Teaching, Journal of Chemical Education)

  • Work on the case during lecture and lab


Typical lab results

Typical lab results

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

2000

1000

500

300

200

  • Lane 1, Arrowhead Mills corn meal; lane 2, Kroger corn meal; lane 3, Quaker white corn meal; lane 4, Cotton Pickin’ corn muffin mix; lane 5, Jiffy corn muffin mix; lane 6,Gold Medal corn muffin mix; lane 7, Aunt Jemima corn bread mix; lane 8, Martha White corn muffin mix; lane 9, non-transgenic corn seed; lane 10, Pioneer YieldGard corn seed.


Break down of events

Break down of events


Other examples

Other examples

  • Olestra case

    • http://www.providence.edu/chm/kcornely/Casebook.htm

    • extract & digest lipids from potato chips

  • Drug discovery

    • HIV protease kinetic analysis

    • structure exploration

    • Drug discovery lab (BAMBED(2005) 33: 16 – 21)


References

References

  • Case study:

    • Advanced version: http://www.sciencecases.org/gmo/gmo_adv.asp

    • GOB version: http://www.sciencecases.org/gmo/gmo_gen.asp

    • Also published in JCST (2005) 34(2):

  • Lab experiments:

    • Taylor, J Chem Ed (2005) 82 (4): 597-598.

    • Brinegar & Levee BAMBED (2004) 32: 35-38.

    • http://www.greenomes.org/


Case study collections

Case study collections

  • https://chico.nss.udel.edu/Pbl/ (requires password)

  • http://www.fhs.mcmaster.ca/pbls/writing/

  • http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/cases/ubcase.htm

  • K. Cornely, Cases in Biochemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 1999; also at http://www.providence.edu/chm/kcornely/Casebook.htm


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