Integrating lecture laboratory and literature using case studies
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Integrating Lecture, Laboratory, and Literature using Case Studies . Ann T.S. Taylor Chemistry Department Wabash College Crawfordsville, IN 47933. What are your non-content course goals?. The Context: Che 361. Required course for Chemistry majors Most Chem minors also take the course

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Integrating Lecture, Laboratory, and Literature using Case Studies

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Integrating Lecture, Laboratory, and Literature using Case Studies

Ann T.S. Taylor

Chemistry Department

Wabash College

Crawfordsville, IN 47933


What are your non-content course goals?


The Context: Che 361

  • Required course for Chemistry majors

  • Most Chem minors also take the course

  • Organic II prerequisite

  • Typical enrollment: 24-30 students, 8-12 per lab section

  • Three 50 minute class periods and one three hour lab per week


Che 361: Biochemistry non-content goals

  • Cooperative learning strategies

  • Transferrence and connections

  • Application, not only memorization

  • Cultivate intellectual curiosity

  • Requires critical thinking skills

  • Oral and written communication skills

  • Use bioinformatic and modeling tools


Common features my cases

  • A short real-life story

  • Reading review and primary literature articles

  • Short in-class small group activities which connect the case and lecture

  • Laboratory activities that directly relate to the case

  • Computational activity


The Case of the Tainted Tacos

A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods which integrates laboratory, lecture, and literature


Unit goals

Students should be able to:

  • Explain transcription and translation

  • Design PCR probes for a sequence of interest

  • Understand how transgenic organisms are made

  • Reinforce principles of enzymology, protein structure, and membrane transport

  • Resolve conflicting data sets

  • Understand the broader ethical implications of using GM foods


The Case of the Tainted Tacos

The Setup Story


Questions generated by story

  • How are GM foods made?

  • How do GM foods “work”?

  • Are GM foods safe for the environment?

  • Could weeds become resistant to herbicides?

  • Are GM foods safe for humans?

  • Do farmers really benefit from using GM products?

  • Should I eat GM foods? Do I already eat GM foods?


Case teaching strategies

  • Common study areas

  • Specialization

  • Jigsawing


Questions all groups study

  • What are the most common genetic modifications of foods

  • How genetic modifications are made

  • How genetic modifications can be detected, and how these methods work

  • Design the primers that are used in the lab


Specialist groups

Farmers

  • Study the economic impact of GM foods and how RoundUp Ready products work

    Entomologists

  • Study the mechanism of Bt products and their impact upon other insects

    Immunologists

  • Look at methods to predict allergenicity


Linking Literature

  • Guided reading questions

  • Small group problems

  • Literature searches


Example: Farmers

Read three papers, then answer questions such as:

  • Why do farmers use genetically modified plants?

  • When do farmers benefit economically from using GM crops?

  • Why does RoundUp (glyphosate) affect plants but not animals?

  • How does glyphosate affect EPSPS, both structurally and kinetically?

  • Describe in detail how weeds that are resistant to RoundUp differ from wildtype (normal) plants.


Goals:

Better pest management

Increase yield

Reduce pesticide use

More flexibility

Disadvantages:

Only profitable when infestation cost is greater than tech cost

Unknown effect on soil ecology

Development of “superweeds”

Economic impact of GM crops


How does RoundUp work?


Integrating technology

  • Presentations

  • Research techniques with guided directions

  • Tools and tutorials from the internet


RoundUp Resistance modeling


Entomologist modeling


Computational analysis of Cry9 for allergenicity

  • Does it have homology to known allergens?

    • BLAST search of allergen database

    • STGSST (422-428) is identical to a sequence in aAspergillus fumigatus allergen

  • Is the homology in a hydrophilic region?

    • No—from a computational tool discussed in one of the papers


Linking lab

Do an experiment related to the issue!

  • Sources:

    • Adapt an existing lab

    • Adapt a “real world” technique

    • Adapt an experiment from one of the papers

    • Adapt a published teaching lab (Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, Journal of College Science Teaching, Journal of Chemical Education)

  • Work on the case during lecture and lab


Typical lab results

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

2000

1000

500

300

200

  • Lane 1, Arrowhead Mills corn meal; lane 2, Kroger corn meal; lane 3, Quaker white corn meal; lane 4, Cotton Pickin’ corn muffin mix; lane 5, Jiffy corn muffin mix; lane 6,Gold Medal corn muffin mix; lane 7, Aunt Jemima corn bread mix; lane 8, Martha White corn muffin mix; lane 9, non-transgenic corn seed; lane 10, Pioneer YieldGard corn seed.


Break down of events


Other examples

  • Olestra case

    • http://www.providence.edu/chm/kcornely/Casebook.htm

    • extract & digest lipids from potato chips

  • Drug discovery

    • HIV protease kinetic analysis

    • structure exploration

    • Drug discovery lab (BAMBED(2005) 33: 16 – 21)


References

  • Case study:

    • Advanced version: http://www.sciencecases.org/gmo/gmo_adv.asp

    • GOB version: http://www.sciencecases.org/gmo/gmo_gen.asp

    • Also published in JCST (2005) 34(2):

  • Lab experiments:

    • Taylor, J Chem Ed (2005) 82 (4): 597-598.

    • Brinegar & Levee BAMBED (2004) 32: 35-38.

    • http://www.greenomes.org/


Case study collections

  • https://chico.nss.udel.edu/Pbl/ (requires password)

  • http://www.fhs.mcmaster.ca/pbls/writing/

  • http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/cases/ubcase.htm

  • K. Cornely, Cases in Biochemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 1999; also at http://www.providence.edu/chm/kcornely/Casebook.htm


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