Welcome to cmpe003 personal computer concepts hardware and software
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Welcome to CMPE003 Personal Computer Concepts: Hardware and Software. Winter 2003 UC Santa Cruz Instructor: Guy Cox. Midterm #1. This Wednesday – January 29 Chapters 1 – 4 and 8 ~50 questions Multiple choice Bring Scantron form #F-1712-ERI-L (big & pink) Bring #2 pencil

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Welcome to CMPE003 Personal Computer Concepts: Hardware and Software

Winter 2003

UC Santa Cruz

Instructor: Guy Cox


Midterm #1

  • This Wednesday – January 29

    • Chapters 1 – 4 and 8

    • ~50 questions

    • Multiple choice

      • Bring Scantron form

        • #F-1712-ERI-L (big & pink)

      • Bring #2 pencil

    • Bring your student ID

      • Required to take exam


Assignments

  • Homework #3 – Due February 3

    • Design your own Webpage 

    • Keep in mind ---

      • The world at large will see your page

      • Don’t put private or sensitive information on your Webpage.

    • Details and sample – see class page –

      http://www.soe.ucsc.edu/classes/cmpe003/Winter03/


The Central Processing Unit:What Goes on Inside the Computer

Chapter 4

Part b


Objectives

  • Identify the components of the central processing unit and how they work together and interact with memory

  • Describe how program instructions are executed by the computer

  • Explain how data is represented in the computer

  • Describe how the computer finds instructions and data

  • Describe the components of a microcomputer system unit’s motherboard

  • List the measures of computer processing speed and explain the approaches that increase speed


Number systems

Binary Number: base 2

  • on and off

  • 0,1

  • ones=20, twos=21, fours=22, etc

  • 0000 0000 = 0 base 10

  • 0000 0001 = 1 base 10

  • 0000 0010 = 2 base 10

  • 0000 0011 = 3 base 10

  • 0000 1010 = 10 base 10


Binary Number System

  • We have 10 fingers

  • Computers have devices with 2 states

...1000100101

...10^310^210^110^0

10011the binary number

2^42^32^22^12^0place values

(1 * 2^4) + (0 * 2^3) + (0 * 2^2) + (1 * 2^1) + (1 * 2^0)

= 16 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 1 = 19


Hexadecimal Numbers

Hexadecimal Number: base 16

  • alternative representation to binary

  • 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F

  • ones=160, sixteens=161, 256's=162, etc

  • translation of hex into binary

  • 0000 0000 = 0 base 16 = 0 base 10

  • 0000 0001 = 1 base 16 = 1 base 10

  • 0000 1010 = A base 16 = 10 base 10

  • 0001 0000 = 10 base 16 = 16 base 10


Hexadecimal Table


Hexadecimal Example #1

  • Hexadecimal (called ‘hex’) is often written with a prefix of ‘0x’

    • 0xFF or 0xff

  • 0xFF = 1111 1111

    • = (0xF * 16^1) + (0xF * 16^0)

    • = (15 * 16) + (15 * 1)

    • = 240 + 15

    • = 255


Hexadecimal Example #2

  • 0x10 = 0001 0000

    • = (0x1 * 16^1) + (0x0 * 16^0)

    • = (1 * 16) + (0 * 1)

    • = 16 + 0

    • = 16

  • 0xA5 = 1010 0101

    • = (0xA * 16^1) + (0x5 * 16^0)

    • = (10 * 16) + (5 * 1)

    • = 160 + 5

    • = 165


The System Unit: The Black Box

  • Houses electronic components

    • Motherboard

    • Storage devices

    • Connections

  • Some Apple Macintosh models have system unit inside monitor


Motherboard

Microprocessor chip

Memory chips

Connections to other parts of the hardware

Additional chips may be added – math coprocessor

The System Unit: The Black Box


Storage Devices

Hard drive

Floppy drive

CD-ROM drive

DVD-ROM drive

The System Unit: The Black Box


What is in our computer?


Microprocessor

  • CPU etched on a chip

  • Chip size is ¼ x ¼ inch

  • Composed of silicon

  • Contains millions of transistors

    • Electronic switches that can allow current to pass through


Microprocessor Components

  • Control Unit – CU

  • Arithmetic / Logic Unit – ALU

  • Registers

  • System clock


Building a Better Microprocessor

  • Computers imprint circuitry onto microchips

    • Cheaper

    • Faster

  • Perform functions of other hardware

    • Math coprocessor is now part of microprocessor

    • Multimedia instructions are now part of microprocessor


Building a Better Microprocessor

  • The faster the computer runs

  • The cheaper it is to make

  • The more reliable it is

The more functions that are combined on a microprocessor:


Intel

Pentium

Celeron

Xeon

Itanium

Intel-compatible

Cyrix

AMD

Types of Microprocessors


Types of Microprocessors

  • PowerPC

    • Cooperative efforts of Apple, IBM, and Motorola

    • Used in Apple Macintosh family of PCs

    • Found in servers and embedded systems

  • Alpha

    • Manufactured by Compaq (formerly DEC)

    • High-end servers and workstations


Semiconductor Memory

  • Reliable

  • Compact

  • Low cost

  • Low power usage

  • Mass-produced economically

  • Volatile

  • Made up of tiny circuits, each able to represent ‘0’ or ‘1’ (bits)


Semiconductor Memory: CMOS

  • Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)

  • Uses little electricity

  • Used in PC to store hardware settings that are needed to boot the computer

  • Retains information with current from battery


RAM

  • Keeps the instructions and data for current program

  • Data in memory can be accessed randomly

  • Easy and speedy access

  • Volatile

  • Can be Erased

  • Written over


Types of RAM

SRAM (Static RAM)

  • Retains contents as long as power is maintained

  • Faster than DRAM


Types of RAM

DRAM (Dynamic RAM)

  • Must be constantly refreshed

  • Used for most PC memory because of size and cost

  • SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM)

    • faster type of DRAM

  • RDRAM (Rambus DRAM)

    • Faster than SDRAM

    • Expensive


Adding RAM

  • Purchase memory modules that are packaged on circuit boards

  • SIMMS – Chips on one side

  • DIMMS – Chips on both sides

  • Maximum amount of RAM that can be installed is based upon the motherboard design


ROM

  • Programs and data that are permanently recorded at the factory

  • Read-only

  • Cannot be changed by the user

  • Stores boot routine that is activated when computer is turned on

  • Non-volatile


PROM

  • Programmable ROM

  • ROM burner can change instructions on some type of ROM chips


Bus Line

  • Paths that transport electrical signals

  • System bus

    • Transports data between the CPU and memory

  • Bus width

    • Number of bits of data that can be carried at a time

    • Normally the same as the CPUs word size

  • Speed measured in MHz


CPU can support a greater number and variety of instructions

Bus Line


Expansion Buses

  • Connect the motherboard to expansion slots

  • Plug expansion boards into slots

    • interface cards

    • adapter cards

  • Provides for external connectors / ports

    • Serial

    • Parallel


Expansion Buses


PC Buses and Ports


What is in our computer?


Speed and Power

What makes a computer fast?

  • Microprocessor speed

  • Bus line size

  • Availability of cache

    • L1 & L2

  • Flash memory

  • RISC computers

  • Parallel processing


Computer Processing Speed

Time to execute an instruction

  • Millisecond

  • Microsecond

  • Nanosecond

    • Modern computers

  • Picosecond

    • In the future


Microprocessor Speed

  • Clock speed

    • Megahertz (MHz)

    • Gigahertz (GHz)

  • Number of instructions per second

    • Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS)

  • Performance of complex mathematical operations

    • One million floating-point operations per second (Megaflops – MFLOPS)


Cache

  • Small block of very fast temporary memory

  • Speed up data transfer

  • Instructions and data used most frequently or most recently


Cache

Step 3

Transfer to main CPU and cache

P

R

O

C

E

S

S

O

R

R

A

M

Cache

  • Step 2

  • Go to address in main memory and read

Step 1

Processor requests data or instructions

  • Next processor request

  • Look first at cache

  • Go to memory


Types of Cache

  • Internal cache

    • Level 1 (L1)

    • Built into microprocessor

    • Up to 128KB

  • External cache

    • Level 2 (L2)

    • Separate chips

    • 256KB or 512 KB

    • SRAM technology

    • Cheaper and slower than L1

    • Faster and more expensive than memory


Flash Memory

  • Nonvolatile RAM

  • Used in

    • Cellular phones

    • Digital cameras

    • Digital music recorders

    • PDAs


Instruction Sets

  • CISC Technology

    Complex Instruction Set Computing

    • Conventional computers

    • Many of the instructions are not used

  • RISC Technology

    Reduced Instruction Set Computing

    • Small subset of instructions

    • Increases speed

    • Programs with few complex instructions

      • Graphics

      • Engineering


Types of Processing

  • Serial processing

    • Execute one instruction at a time

    • Fetch, decode, execute, store

  • Parallel Processing

    • Multiple processors used at the same time

    • Can perform trillions of floating-point instructions per second (teraflops)

    • Ex: network servers, supercomputers


Types of Processing

  • Pipelining

    • Instruction’s action need not be complete before the next begins

    • Fetch instruction 1, begin to decode and fetch instruction 2

  • Super Scalar

    • Executes multiple instructions per cycle


Midterm #1

  • This Wednesday – January 29

    • Chapters 1 – 4 and 8

    • ~50 questions

    • Multiple choice

      • Bring Scantron form

        • #F-1712-ERI-L (big & pink)

      • Bring #2 pencil

    • Bring your student ID

      • Required to take exam


Have a Great Day!


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