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Welcome to CMPE003 Personal Computer Concepts: Hardware and Software. Winter 2003 UC Santa Cruz Instructor: Guy Cox. Midterm #1. This Wednesday – January 29 Chapters 1 – 4 and 8 ~50 questions Multiple choice Bring Scantron form #F-1712-ERI-L (big & pink) Bring #2 pencil

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welcome to cmpe003 personal computer concepts hardware and software

Welcome to CMPE003 Personal Computer Concepts: Hardware and Software

Winter 2003

UC Santa Cruz

Instructor: Guy Cox

midterm 1
Midterm #1
  • This Wednesday – January 29
    • Chapters 1 – 4 and 8
    • ~50 questions
    • Multiple choice
      • Bring Scantron form
        • #F-1712-ERI-L (big & pink)
      • Bring #2 pencil
    • Bring your student ID
      • Required to take exam
assignments
Assignments
  • Homework #3 – Due February 3
    • Design your own Webpage 
    • Keep in mind ---
      • The world at large will see your page
      • Don’t put private or sensitive information on your Webpage.
    • Details and sample – see class page –

http://www.soe.ucsc.edu/classes/cmpe003/Winter03/

objectives
Objectives
  • Identify the components of the central processing unit and how they work together and interact with memory
  • Describe how program instructions are executed by the computer
  • Explain how data is represented in the computer
  • Describe how the computer finds instructions and data
  • Describe the components of a microcomputer system unit’s motherboard
  • List the measures of computer processing speed and explain the approaches that increase speed
number systems
Number systems

Binary Number: base 2

  • on and off
  • 0,1
  • ones=20, twos=21, fours=22, etc
  • 0000 0000 = 0 base 10
  • 0000 0001 = 1 base 10
  • 0000 0010 = 2 base 10
  • 0000 0011 = 3 base 10
  • 0000 1010 = 10 base 10
binary number system
Binary Number System
  • We have 10 fingers
  • Computers have devices with 2 states

... 1000 100 10 1

... 10^310^210^110^0

10011 the binary number

2^42^32^22^12^0 place values

(1 * 2^4) + (0 * 2^3) + (0 * 2^2) + (1 * 2^1) + (1 * 2^0)

= 16 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 1 = 19

hexadecimal numbers
Hexadecimal Numbers

Hexadecimal Number: base 16

  • alternative representation to binary
  • 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F
  • ones=160, sixteens=161, 256\'s=162, etc
  • translation of hex into binary
  • 0000 0000 = 0 base 16 = 0 base 10
  • 0000 0001 = 1 base 16 = 1 base 10
  • 0000 1010 = A base 16 = 10 base 10
  • 0001 0000 = 10 base 16 = 16 base 10
hexadecimal example 1
Hexadecimal Example #1
  • Hexadecimal (called ‘hex’) is often written with a prefix of ‘0x’
    • 0xFF or 0xff
  • 0xFF = 1111 1111
    • = (0xF * 16^1) + (0xF * 16^0)
    • = (15 * 16) + (15 * 1)
    • = 240 + 15
    • = 255
hexadecimal example 2
Hexadecimal Example #2
  • 0x10 = 0001 0000
    • = (0x1 * 16^1) + (0x0 * 16^0)
    • = (1 * 16) + (0 * 1)
    • = 16 + 0
    • = 16
  • 0xA5 = 1010 0101
    • = (0xA * 16^1) + (0x5 * 16^0)
    • = (10 * 16) + (5 * 1)
    • = 160 + 5
    • = 165
the system unit the black box
The System Unit: The Black Box
  • Houses electronic components
    • Motherboard
    • Storage devices
    • Connections
  • Some Apple Macintosh models have system unit inside monitor
the system unit the black box1
Motherboard

Microprocessor chip

Memory chips

Connections to other parts of the hardware

Additional chips may be added – math coprocessor

The System Unit: The Black Box
the system unit the black box2
Storage Devices

Hard drive

Floppy drive

CD-ROM drive

DVD-ROM drive

The System Unit: The Black Box
microprocessor
Microprocessor
  • CPU etched on a chip
  • Chip size is ¼ x ¼ inch
  • Composed of silicon
  • Contains millions of transistors
    • Electronic switches that can allow current to pass through
microprocessor components
Microprocessor Components
  • Control Unit – CU
  • Arithmetic / Logic Unit – ALU
  • Registers
  • System clock
building a better microprocessor
Building a Better Microprocessor
  • Computers imprint circuitry onto microchips
    • Cheaper
    • Faster
  • Perform functions of other hardware
    • Math coprocessor is now part of microprocessor
    • Multimedia instructions are now part of microprocessor
building a better microprocessor1
Building a Better Microprocessor
  • The faster the computer runs
  • The cheaper it is to make
  • The more reliable it is

The more functions that are combined on a microprocessor:

types of microprocessors
Intel

Pentium

Celeron

Xeon

Itanium

Intel-compatible

Cyrix

AMD

Types of Microprocessors
types of microprocessors1
Types of Microprocessors
  • PowerPC
    • Cooperative efforts of Apple, IBM, and Motorola
    • Used in Apple Macintosh family of PCs
    • Found in servers and embedded systems
  • Alpha
    • Manufactured by Compaq (formerly DEC)
    • High-end servers and workstations
semiconductor memory
Semiconductor Memory
  • Reliable
  • Compact
  • Low cost
  • Low power usage
  • Mass-produced economically
  • Volatile
  • Made up of tiny circuits, each able to represent ‘0’ or ‘1’ (bits)
semiconductor memory cmos
Semiconductor Memory: CMOS
  • Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)
  • Uses little electricity
  • Used in PC to store hardware settings that are needed to boot the computer
  • Retains information with current from battery
slide24
RAM
  • Keeps the instructions and data for current program
  • Data in memory can be accessed randomly
  • Easy and speedy access
  • Volatile
  • Can be Erased
  • Written over
types of ram
Types of RAM

SRAM (Static RAM)

  • Retains contents as long as power is maintained
  • Faster than DRAM
types of ram1
Types of RAM

DRAM (Dynamic RAM)

  • Must be constantly refreshed
  • Used for most PC memory because of size and cost
  • SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM)
    • faster type of DRAM
  • RDRAM (Rambus DRAM)
    • Faster than SDRAM
    • Expensive
adding ram
Adding RAM
  • Purchase memory modules that are packaged on circuit boards
  • SIMMS – Chips on one side
  • DIMMS – Chips on both sides
  • Maximum amount of RAM that can be installed is based upon the motherboard design
slide28
ROM
  • Programs and data that are permanently recorded at the factory
  • Read-only
  • Cannot be changed by the user
  • Stores boot routine that is activated when computer is turned on
  • Non-volatile
slide29
PROM
  • Programmable ROM
  • ROM burner can change instructions on some type of ROM chips
bus line
Bus Line
  • Paths that transport electrical signals
  • System bus
    • Transports data between the CPU and memory
  • Bus width
    • Number of bits of data that can be carried at a time
    • Normally the same as the CPUs word size
  • Speed measured in MHz
expansion buses
Expansion Buses
  • Connect the motherboard to expansion slots
  • Plug expansion boards into slots
    • interface cards
    • adapter cards
  • Provides for external connectors / ports
    • Serial
    • Parallel
speed and power
Speed and Power

What makes a computer fast?

  • Microprocessor speed
  • Bus line size
  • Availability of cache
    • L1 & L2
  • Flash memory
  • RISC computers
  • Parallel processing
computer processing speed
Computer Processing Speed

Time to execute an instruction

  • Millisecond
  • Microsecond
  • Nanosecond
    • Modern computers
  • Picosecond
    • In the future
microprocessor speed
Microprocessor Speed
  • Clock speed
    • Megahertz (MHz)
    • Gigahertz (GHz)
  • Number of instructions per second
    • Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS)
  • Performance of complex mathematical operations
    • One million floating-point operations per second (Megaflops – MFLOPS)
cache
Cache
  • Small block of very fast temporary memory
  • Speed up data transfer
  • Instructions and data used most frequently or most recently
cache1
Cache

Step 3

Transfer to main CPU and cache

P

R

O

C

E

S

S

O

R

R

A

M

Cache

  • Step 2
  • Go to address in main memory and read

Step 1

Processor requests data or instructions

  • Next processor request
  • Look first at cache
  • Go to memory
types of cache
Types of Cache
  • Internal cache
    • Level 1 (L1)
    • Built into microprocessor
    • Up to 128KB
  • External cache
    • Level 2 (L2)
    • Separate chips
    • 256KB or 512 KB
    • SRAM technology
    • Cheaper and slower than L1
    • Faster and more expensive than memory
flash memory
Flash Memory
  • Nonvolatile RAM
  • Used in
    • Cellular phones
    • Digital cameras
    • Digital music recorders
    • PDAs
instruction sets
Instruction Sets
  • CISC Technology

Complex Instruction Set Computing

    • Conventional computers
    • Many of the instructions are not used
  • RISC Technology

Reduced Instruction Set Computing

    • Small subset of instructions
    • Increases speed
    • Programs with few complex instructions
      • Graphics
      • Engineering
types of processing
Types of Processing
  • Serial processing
    • Execute one instruction at a time
    • Fetch, decode, execute, store
  • Parallel Processing
    • Multiple processors used at the same time
    • Can perform trillions of floating-point instructions per second (teraflops)
    • Ex: network servers, supercomputers
types of processing1
Types of Processing
  • Pipelining
    • Instruction’s action need not be complete before the next begins
    • Fetch instruction 1, begin to decode and fetch instruction 2
  • Super Scalar
    • Executes multiple instructions per cycle
midterm 11
Midterm #1
  • This Wednesday – January 29
    • Chapters 1 – 4 and 8
    • ~50 questions
    • Multiple choice
      • Bring Scantron form
        • #F-1712-ERI-L (big & pink)
      • Bring #2 pencil
    • Bring your student ID
      • Required to take exam
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