Finan as
Download
1 / 24

Finanças - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 117 Views
  • Uploaded on

Finanças. November 7. Topics covered. CAPM for cost of capital Estimation of beta. Risk and cost of capital. Previously: Determine the timing and the size of cash flows Now: determine the discount rate for risky cash flows The discount rate can be computed from the CAPM.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Finanças' - eithne


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Finan as

Finanças

November 7

QDai for FEUNL


Topics covered
Topics covered

  • CAPM for cost of capital

  • Estimation of beta

QDai for FEUNL


Risk and cost of capital
Risk and cost of capital

  • Previously: Determine the timing and the size of cash flows

  • Now: determine the discount rate for risky cash flows

  • The discount rate can be computed from the CAPM

QDai for FEUNL


Choices of a firm with extra cash

Pay cash dividend

Invest in project

Choices of a firm with extra cash

Shareholder invests in financial asset

Firm withexcess cash

A firm with excess cash can either pay a dividend or make a capital investment

Shareholder’s Terminal Value

QDai for FEUNL


Capital budgeting rule
Capital budgeting rule

  • The discount rate of a project

  • The expected return

QDai for FEUNL


Cost of capital
Cost of capital

  • Example

    • Suppose the stock of a company has a beta of 2.5. The firm is 100-percent equity financed.

    • Assume a risk-free rate of 5-percent and a market risk premium of 10-percent.

    • What is the appropriate discount rate for an expansion of this firm?

QDai for FEUNL


Example continued

Project

Project b

Project’s Estimated Cash Flows Next Year

IRR

NPV at 30%

A

2.5

$150

50%

$15.38

B

2.5

$130

30%

$0

C

2.5

$110

10%

-$15.38

Example (continued)

Suppose the company is evaluating the following non-mutually exclusive projects. Each costs $100 and lasts one year.

QDai for FEUNL


Using the sml to estimate the risk adjusted discount rate for projects
Using the SML to Estimate the Risk-Adjusted Discount Rate for Projects

Project

IRR

5%

Firm’s risk (beta)

QDai for FEUNL


Estimation of beta
Estimation of beta for Projects

  • Beta: Sensitivity of a stock’s return to the return on the market portfolio.

  • Market Portfolio: Portfolio of all assets in the economy. In practice a broad stock market index, such as the S&P Composite, is used to represent the market.

QDai for FEUNL


Stability of beta
Stability of Beta for Projects

  • Many analysts argue that betas are generally stable for firms remaining in the same industry.

  • That’s not to say that a firm’s beta can’t change.

QDai for FEUNL


Using an industry beta
Using an Industry Beta for Projects

  • It is frequently argued that one can better estimate a firm’s beta by involving the whole industry.

  • If you believe that the operations of the firm are similar to the operations of the rest of the industry,

  • If you believe that the operations of the firm are fundamentally different from the operations of the rest of the industry

  • Adjustments

QDai for FEUNL


Determinants of beta
Determinants of beta for Projects

  • Cylicality of revenues

QDai for FEUNL


Determinants of beta1
Determinants of beta for Projects

  • Operating leverage

    • how sensitive a firm is to its fixed costs.

QDai for FEUNL


Operating leverage
Operating Leverage for Projects

 EBIT

$

 Volume

Volume

QDai for FEUNL


Determinants of beta2
Determinants of beta for Projects

  • Financial leverage

    • Operating leverage

    • Financial leverage

    • The relationship between the betas of the firm’s debt, equity, and assets is given by:

    • The beta of debt

QDai for FEUNL


Financial leverage and beta example
Financial Leverage and Beta: Example for Projects

Consider a company which is currently all-equity and has a beta of 0.90. The firm has decided to lever up to a capital structure of 1 part debt to 1 part equity. Since the firm will remain in the same industry, its asset beta should remain 0.90. However, assuming a zero beta for its debt, its equity beta would become:

QDai for FEUNL


Financial leverage and beta
Financial leverage and beta for Projects

  • Conclusion

QDai for FEUNL


Extension of the basic model
Extension of the basic model for Projects

  • The firm vs the project

    • The risk of a project

    • The project should be discounted with

QDai for FEUNL


The firm vs the project

r for Projectsf

bFIRM

The firm vs the project

A firm that uses one discount rate for all projects may over time increase the risk of the firm while decreasing its value.

Project IRR

Hurdle rate

Firm’s risk (beta)

QDai for FEUNL


The firm vs the project1
The firm vs the project for Projects

Suppose the Conglomerate Company has a cost of capital, based on the CAPM, of 17%. The risk-free rate is 4%; the market risk premium is 10% and the firm’s beta is 1.3.

17% = 4% + 1.3 × [14% – 4%]

This is a breakdown of the company’s investment projects:

1/3 Automotive retailer b = 2.0

1/3 Computer Hard Drive Mfr. b = 1.3

1/3 Electric Utility b = 0.6

average b of assets = 1.3

When evaluating a new electrical generation investment, which cost of capital should be used?

QDai for FEUNL


Capital budgeting project risk
Capital Budgeting & Project Risk for Projects

SML

Project IRR

24%

Investments in hard drives or auto retailing should have higher discount rates.

17%

10%

Project’s risk (b)

0.6

1.3

2.0

r = 4% + 0.6×(14% – 4% ) = 10% 10% reflects the opportunity cost of capital on an investment in electrical generation, given the unique risk of the project.

QDai for FEUNL


Extention of the basic model
Extention of the basic model for Projects

  • The Weighted Average Cost of Capital

  • It is because interest expense is tax-deductible that we multiply the last term by

QDai for FEUNL


WACC for Projects

  • Example: a firms with a debt-equity ratio of 0.6, a cost of debt of 15.15%, and a cost of equity of 20%. The corporate tax rate is 34%.

  • Debt to value ratio=6/(10+6)=0.375

  • Equity to value ratio=1-0.375=0.625

  • rwacc=0.625*20%+0.375*15.15%*(1-0.34)

    =16.25%

QDai for FEUNL


Steps to calculate wacc
Steps to calculate WACC for Projects

Cost of equity

Cost of debt

Calculate WACC

QDai for FEUNL


ad