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Working with Sources. How to use outside source material correctly. When you research a topic and “borrow” material from the sources you found in your research, you must give credit to those sources. What are “outside sources” for a research paper? Traditional sources include:. Books

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Working with sources l.jpg

Working with Sources

How to use outside source material correctly


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When you research a topic and “borrow” material from the sources you found in your research, you must give credit to those sources.


What are outside sources for a research paper traditional sources include l.jpg
What are “outside sources” for a research paper? Traditional sources include:

  • Books

    • Entire books

    • Chapters

    • Works within an anthology

  • Articles

    • Professional journals, magazines, newspapers


But there are many other types of sources such as l.jpg
…but there are many other types of sources, such as: Traditional sources include:

  • Web pages

  • Personal interviews

  • Videotaped interviews

  • Movies

  • E-mail correspondence

    • And other sources.


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Whenever you find information for your research paper (except in your own head), you are using a source.





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When someone conducts a study, analyzes a topic, proposes a new idea, puts words together in a distinctive way, or does other intellectual work, the work is his/her “intellectual property.”


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This idea of “ownership” is the way professors, scholars, and professionals in Western culture look at research.


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To your professor, using an outside source without telling your readers that you are “borrowing” material from it is like…



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Not to indicate your source is considered academic dishonesty, i.e. plagiarism.Colleges have rules against plagiarism—and there are penalties.


Everyone can recognize intentional plagiarism l.jpg
Everyone can recognize intentional plagiarism: dishonesty, i.e.

  • Buying a paper on the Internet.

  • Turning in your brother’s research paper with your name on it.

  • Putting material from outside sources in your paper and making it look like your own ideas or words.


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But there is also unintentional (accidental) plagiarism—not giving credit to your sources because you don’t know how, or because you were careless.


Even if it was a mistake you can still get into trouble l.jpg
Even if it was a mistake, you can still get into trouble! plagiarism—not giving credit to your sources because you don’t know how, or because you were careless.


There are other good reasons to acknowledge your sources l.jpg
There are other good reasons to acknowledge your sources: plagiarism—not giving credit to your sources because you don’t know how, or because you were careless.

  • Your readers will trust what you write.

  • You will be showing your instructors that you know how to do research correctly.


In today s workshop we ll look at the correct ways to integrate source material into your paper l.jpg
In today’s workshop, we’ll look at the correct ways to integrate source material into your paper.


To summarize l.jpg
To summarize: integrate source material into your paper.

When you use the information, words or ideas of someone else, be sure to tell where they came from.


Rule of thumb for deciding what to document l.jpg
Rule of thumb for deciding what to document: integrate source material into your paper.

  • Borrowed language (exact words)

  • Borrowed ideas, explanations, theories, etc.

  • Borrowed statistics, information, definitions, etc.

    All need to be documented.


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Here’s an exception: You do not need to document information that is common knowledge—that is, something everyone “just knows.”


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For example, information that is common knowledge—that is, something everyone “just knows.”--Most cars have four wheels.--Lansing is the capital of Michigan.--Abraham Lincoln was assassinated.


Some guidelines l.jpg
Some guidelines: information that is common knowledge—that is, something everyone “just knows.”

  • Can you find the same information in at least four general sources?

  • Is it information that does not change over time?

  • Is it something that “everybody just knows?”

    If so, you don’t need to cite a source.


Where do you put the information about your sources in a research paper two places l.jpg
Where do you put the information about your sources in a research paper? Two places:

  • If you use MLA or APA style, you put the information in “in-text citations”—that is, right in the body of your paper. If you use CMS, you put it in notes, right after the body of the paper.

  • You also put information about your sources on a page at the end of your paper.


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The kind of information you put in your in-text citations (or notes) and how you organize the information at the end of your paper depends on the documentation style you are using.


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In this workshop we’ll look at how to insert the borrowed information correctly into the body of your paper.


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No matter which system of documentation you use, you will want to use something to “signal” to your reader at the beginning and end of the borrowed material, whenever possible.



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In MLA, you insert the name of the author and the page on which you found the information into the body of your paper. (APA uses name and year. CMS uses name and note number.)


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You can use these two pieces of information to tell your readers where the material you borrowed starts and stops.


Example williamson conjectured that martians landed in minnesota approximately two decades ago 22 l.jpg
Example: readers where the material you borrowed starts and stops.Williamson conjectured that Martians landed in Minnesota approximately two decades ago (22).


When you borrow from an outside source there are three basic ways to use the material l.jpg

When you borrow from an outside source, there are three basic ways to use the material:

Quote directly

Summarize

Paraphrase


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There are specific rules for quoting, summarizing or paraphrasing that help you avoid accidental plagiarism.


A quotation is when you use the exact words of a source no changes l.jpg
A paraphrasing that help you avoid quotation is when you use the exact words of a source—no changes.


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Use a quotation when: paraphrasing that help you avoid --you can’t think of a better way to express an idea.--there is something noteworthy about the language.


To quote from a source l.jpg
To quote from a source: paraphrasing that help you avoid

  • Use the exact words of the source. Don’t change a thing!

  • Enclose short quotes (fewer than four lines) in quotation marks. The page number goes outside of the quotation marks and before the end punctuation.

  • For longer quotes, don’t use quotation marks. Indent the whole quotation 10 spaces.


If you must make a change in the quote use brackets around the item you changed l.jpg
If you MUST make a change in the quote, use brackets around the item you changed.

Jacksonstated that Martians “wash [their] tentacles with chamomile soap before dinner” (132).


If you leave something out of a quote indicate this with ellipses l.jpg
If you leave something out of a quote, indicate this with ellipses:

Hobson refuted Jackson’s assertion at length, stating that “Martians have never been known to use chamomile soap…indeed, they prefer Palmolive”(97).


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When you ellipses:paraphrase, you are using an idea from a source, but you put it in your own words. You try to use different words and phrasing. Your version will be roughly the same length as the source’s version.


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Use a paraphrase: ellipses:--to make the idea blend into your paper more smoothly.--to demonstrate that you understand what the source was saying. (Profs like this!)


When you paraphrase l.jpg
When you ellipses:paraphrase:

  • Put the information into your own words.

  • Keep all of the points the author made.

  • Keep the points in the same order as they appear in the source.

  • Do not shorten/condense anything.

  • Do not use quotation marks.


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The third strategy is ellipses:summary. You summarize when you want to give your readers a quick overview of what the source material says.


When you summarize l.jpg
When you ellipses:summarize:

  • Put the information into your own words.

  • Shorten/condense the material.

  • Do not use quotation marks.


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Let’s pretend you are writing a research paper about the social lives of Martians. You found a useful book by Harold Hobson.


Here is material that you want to use from the book by hobson l.jpg
Here is material that you want to use from the book by Hobson:

“Notorious shopaholics, Martians enter shopping malls with a gleam in their eyes—a gleam that comes from knowing exactly where every store is and where to find the best bargains ” (Hobson 88).

As you can see, this is a direct quote—Hobson’s exact words.


If you decided to paraphrase the material it would look something like this l.jpg
If you decided to paraphrase the material, it would look something like this:

According to Hobson, Martians are shop-’til-you-drop fanatics. They take pride in knowing when, where and how to locate the true bargains (88).


If you were summarizing the material from hobson s book it would look something like this l.jpg
If you were summarizing the material from Hobson’s book, it would look something like this:

Hobson claims that Martians are expert shoppers, even fanatics (88).


The best research papers usually use all three strategies quotations paraphrase and summary l.jpg
The best research papers usually use it would look something like this:allthree strategies—quotations, paraphrase, and summary.


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