An instrument to measure mathematics attitudes
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An Instrument to Measure Mathematics Attitudes. Presenters: Wei-Chih Hsu Professor : Ming-Puu Chen Date : 09/15/2008. Tapia, M. & Marsh, G. E. (2004). An instrument to measurement mathematics attitudes. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 8 (2) <http://www.rapidintellect.com/

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An Instrument to Measure Mathematics Attitudes

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An instrument to measure mathematics attitudes

An Instrument to Measure Mathematics Attitudes

Presenters: Wei-Chih Hsu

Professor : Ming-Puu Chen

Date : 09/15/2008

Tapia, M. & Marsh, G. E. (2004). An instrument to measurement mathematics attitudes. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 8(2) <http://www.rapidintellect.com/

AEQweb/cho25344l.htm>; 2004 Accessed 15.08.2004.


Introduction

Introduction

  • This article

    • A report of the development of a new instrument to measure students’ attitudes toward mathematics.

    • Determine the underlying dimensions of the instrument by examining the responses of 545 students.

  • Attitudes Toward Mathematics Inventory (ATMI).

    • The reliability coefficient alpha was .97

    • A maximum likelihood factor analysis with a varimax rotation yielded four factors

      • self-confidence;

      • value of mathematics;

      • enjoyment of mathematics;

      • motivation.


Literature review 1 3

Literature review (1/3)

  • Conventional wisdom and some research suggest that

    • students with negative attitudes toward mathematics have performance problems simply because of anxiety.

  • One of the first instruments developed was the Dutton Scale (Dutton, 1954; Dutton & Blum, 1968), which measured “feelings” toward arithmetic.

  • Aiken (1974) constructed scales designed to measure enjoyment of mathematics and the value of mathematics.

  • Some researchers developed scales dealing exclusively with math anxiety.

    • the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (Richardson & Suinn, 1972),

    • the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale–Revised (Plake & Parker, 1982),

    • the Mathematics Anxiety Questionanaire (Wigfield & Meece, 1988).


Literature review 2 3

Literature review (2/3)

  • The Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales (1976)

    • One of the most popular instruments used in research over the last three decades.

    • Consist of a group of nine instruments:

      • (1) Attitude Toward Success in Mathematics Scale,

      • (2) Mathematics as a Male Domain Scale,

      • (3) Mathematics as a Mother Scale,

      • (4) Mathematics as a Father Scale,

      • (5) Teacher Scale,

      • (6) Confidence in Learning Mathematics Scale,

      • (7) Mathematics Anxiety Scale,

      • (8) Effectance Motivation Scale in Mathematics,

      • (9) Mathematics Usefulness Scale.

    • 108 items, and takes 45 minutes to complete.

    • Subsequent research has questioned the validity, reliability (Suinn and Edwards, 1982), and integrity of its scores (O’Neal, Ernest, McLean, &Templeton, 1988).


Literature review 3 3

Literature review (3/3)

  • Melancon, Thompson, and Becnel (1994)

    • Isolated eight factors rather than nine, and they were unable to find a perfect fit with the model proposed by Fennema and Sherman.

  • Mulhern and Rae (1998)

    • Identified only six factors,

    • Suggested that the scales might not gauge what they were intended to measure.

  • Other researchers suggest

    • Students may find math to be simply unappealing or socially unacceptable, although they may actually have high aptitude.

  • The Attitudes Toward Mathematics Inventory (ATMI) was developed.

    • Finding a need for a shorter instrument with a straightforward factor structure.


Methodology 1 4

Methodology (1/4)

  • The Attitudes Toward Mathematics Inventory

    • The 49-items

      • Were constructed in the domain of attitudes toward mathematics to address factors reported to be important in research.

    • Items were constructed to assess

      • 1.Confidence(Goolsby, 1988; Linn & Hyde, 1989; Randhawa, Beamer, & Lundberg, 1993).

        • Measure students’ confidence and self-concept of their performance in mathematics.

      • 2. Anxiety(Hauge, 1991; Terwilliger & Titus, 1995).

        • Measure feelings of anxiety and consequences of these feelings.

      • 3. Value(Longitudinal Study of American Youth (1990).

        • Measure students’ beliefs on the usefulness, relevance and worth of mathematics in their life now and in the future.

      • 4. Enjoyment(Ma, 1997; Thorndike-Christ, 1991).

        • Measure the degree to which students enjoy working mathematics and mathematics classes.


Methodology 2 4

Methodology (2/4)

  • 5. Motivation(Singh, Granville, & Dika, 2002; Thorndike-Christ, 1991).

    • Measure interest in mathematics and desire to pursue studies in mathematics.

  • 6. Parent/teacher expectations(Kenschaft, 1991; Dossey, 1992).

    • Measure the beliefs and expectations parents and teachers have of the students’ ability and performance in mathematics

  • Subjects

    • 545 high school students, 302 boys and 243 girls, enrolled in mathematics high school classes

      • 135 freshmen, 153 sophomores, 168 juniors, 84 seniors, and five 8th-grade students.

  • Procedure

    • Teachers administered a 49-item inventory to the subjects during their classes.

    • Four months later, the inventory was re-administered to 64 subjects who had previously taken the survey.


  • Methodology 3 4

    Methodology (3/4)

    • Materials

      • The ATMI was originally a 49-item scale.

      • The items were constructed using a Likert-scale format with the following anchors: 1 strongly disagree, 2 disagree, 3 neutral, 4 agree, and 5 strongly agree.

      • The score was the sum of the ratings.

    • Results

      • For scores on the 49 items alpha was .96, indicating a high degree of internal consistency for group analyses.

      • Of the 49 items, 40 had item-to-total correlationsabove .50, the highest being .82.

      • The mean and standard deviation of the total score were 169.74 and 32.06 respectively.

      • The standard error of measurement was 6.07.


    Methodology 4 4

    Methodology (4/4)


    Discussion 1 2

    Discussion (1/2)

    • Four subscales were identified as self-confidence, value, enjoyment, and motivation.

    • Scores on the 40-item scale

      • developed through factor analysis

        • showed good internal reliability, and test-retest reliability showed stability over time.

    • With only 40 items, the estimated time to complete the deletion of the parent/teacher items was surprising.

      • These items were dropped because of extremely low item-to-total correlations, which requires some consideration.

    • Attitudinal research should concern more than anxiety and competence.

      • It is clear that other factors are also important.


    Discussion 2 2

    Discussion (2/2)

    • Far less attention has been directed to the investigation of student attitudes.

      • Although there is a body of research about attitudes toward mathematics, most of it is concerned only with anxiety.

    • Use of the ATMI may be important for teachers and researchers

      • Success or failure in math performance is greatly determined by personal beliefs.

      • Regardless of the teaching method used, students are likely to exert effort according to the effects they anticipate,

        • Personal beliefs about their abilities,

        • The importance they attach to mathematics,

        • Enjoyment of the subject matter,

        • The motivation to succeed.


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