English is not french 1 grammar
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English is not French : 1. GRAMMAR. English Grammar ≠ French Grammar. Le crayon noir de ton vieil oncle est perdu La plume noire de ta vieille tante est perdue. English Grammar ≠ French Grammar. Le crayon noir de mon vieil oncle est perdu

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English is not French : 1. GRAMMAR

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English is not french 1 grammar

English is not French :1. GRAMMAR


English grammar french grammar

English Grammar ≠ French Grammar

Le crayon noir de ton vieil oncle est perdu

La plume noire de ta vieille tante est perdue


English grammar french grammar1

English Grammar ≠ French Grammar

Le crayon noir de mon vieil oncle est perdu

La plume noire de ma vieille tante est perdue

My old uncle’s black pencil is lost

My old aunt’s black pen is lost

In E., only the content words have changed.

Not the articles or the endings.


English is not french 1 grammar

Le crayon noir de mon vieil oncle est perdu

La plume noire de ma vieille tante est perdue

French substantives have gender

(masculine / feminine)


How about english

How about English ?

No contrast masculine / feminine

for common nouns :

Le crayonThe pencil

La plumeThe pen

Un crayonA pencil

Une plumeA pen

Un oncleAn uncle

Une tante An aunt

A becomes An

before a vowel


How about english1

How about English ?

But the contrast masculine / feminine exists

for gendered beings (in the singular) :

Le garçon ... ilThe boy ... He / his

La fille ... elleThe girl ... She / her

Le crayon ... ilThe pencil ... It / its

La plume ... elleThe pen ... It / its

The boys / girls / pencils / pens ... They / their


How about english2

How about English ?

No gender markers in the plural !

The boys ... they

The girls ... they

The drinks ... they

also :

Everybody ... they

and even :

Somebody / someone .... they / them / their

Nobody / no one ... they / them / their


English is not french 1 grammar

Le crayon noir de ton vieil oncle est perdu

La plume noire de ta vieille tante est perdue

Les crayons noirs

Les plumes noires

French adjectives agree with the nouns they qualify (gender and number)


How about english3

How about English ?

English adjectives do not agree

with the nouns they qualify :

Un grand hommeA tall man

Une grande femmeA tall woman

Les beaux arbresThe beautiful trees

Les belles maisonsThe beautiful houses


How about english4

How about English ?

English adjectives do not agree

with the nouns they qualify :

Le livre est bonThe book is good

Les biscuits sont bonsThe biscuits are good

La pomme est bonneThe apple is good

Les tasses sont bonnesThe cups are good


However

However ...

The French « beaucoup de ...»

is invariable (does not change),

but the English « much » and « many »

change with the number of the noun :

Il n’a pas beaucoup d’argent, ....

He doesn’t have much (a lot of) money, ...

mais il a beaucoup d’amis.

but he has many (a lot of) friends !


English vs french

English vs. French

Le crayon noir de monvieiloncle est perdu

La plume noire de mavieilletante est perdue

Frenchpossessives behave like adjectives :

they agree with the noun they qualify.

English possessivesdo not :

they agree with the possessor


How about english5

How about English ?

English possessives agree with the possessor :

Il a vu son pèreHe saw his father

Il a vu sa mèreHe saw his mother

Elle a vu son pèreShe saw her father

Elle a vu sa mèreShe saw her mother

We saw our mother

You saw your father

They saw their father


English vs french1

English vs. French

Le crayon noir de ton vieil oncle est perdu

La plume noire de ta vieille tante est perdue

Fr. past participles behave like adjectives :

They agree with the noun they qualify


How about english6

How about English ?

Englishpast participles do not agree

with the nouns they qualify :

L’homme que j’ai vu

La femme que j’ai vue

Les hommes que j’ai vus

Les femmes que j’ai vues

The man / woman / men / women / I’ve seen


No word endings in english

No word endings in English ?

It is true that (in contrast to Latin or German) nouns (substantives) do not change according to their grammatical status (subject or object) :

The boy loves the girl

The girl loves the boy


No word endings in english1

No word endings in English ?

Amo

Amas

Amat

Amamus

Amatis

Amant

J’aime

Tu aimes

Il/elle aime

Nous aimons

Vous aimez

Ils aiment

I love

You love

He / she loves

We love

You love

They love

I am

You are

He / she is

We are

You are

They are

It is true that verbal endings are much simpler, and fewer, in English than in Latin or French :


No word endings in english2

No word endings in English ?

Yes there are !

- s -ed -ing


No word endings in english3

No word endings in English ?

Yes there are !

- s -ed -ing


No word endings in english4

No word endings in English ?

- S : 1. Plural - S

2. 3rd. Person - S

3. Genitive ’S

4. ’S = is, has


English is not french 1 grammar

S :one morph, three phonemes

one book, two books [s]

one bed, two beds[z]

one tree, two trees[z]

one house, two houses[Iz]

one witch, two witches[Iz]


Careful 1

Careful !!! (1)

We need a plural - S after

One of the (...) + noun :

One of the best players in the world

One of his worst performances

One of my favourite books

One of your dirty tricks

One of her close friends is an astronaut

etc.


English is not french 1 grammar

- S :3rd. Person -S

He works, she sits, ... [s]

He begs, she digs, ... [z]

He plays, she sees, [z]

He kisses, she watches, [Iz]


Subject verb agreement

Subject / verb agreement

In French, « il y a ... » is invariable :

Il y a un chat sur le paillasson

Il y a deux chats dans la maison

In English, « there is / are » agrees with

the « real » subject that follows :

There is a cat on the mat

There aretwo catsin the house

NOT : They are ... (= ils sont)


Careful 2

Careful !!! (2)

It’s = it is, it has (it’s now or never)

Its = possessive (the dog bit its master)

Who’s = who is, who has

(Who’s the owner of this car ?)

(Who’s never been to Antwerp ?)

Whose = relative pronoun

(The girl whose dog bit the postman)


No word endings in english5

No word endings in English ?

Yes there are !

- s -ed -ing


English is not french 1 grammar

- edforms the simple past

and the past participle of regular verbs.

Here also, there are three pronunciations :

Worked[t]

Loved[d]

Played[d]

Wanted[Id]

Mended[Id]

Naked, Crooked [Id]


No word endings in english6

No word endings in English ?

Yes there are !

- s -ed -ing


English is not french 1 grammar

-ing

The ending -ing is used to form the present participle and the gerund of regular verbs.

The present participle is used

in the « progressive » verbal form :

I am teaching

You are learning

He / She / It is standing


English is not french 1 grammar

-ing

The ending -ing is used to form the present participle and the gerund of regular verbs.

The gerund is an -ing verbal form

used as a substantive :

There will be some dancingtonight,

but no drinkingafter midnight.

No parking here (« a parking » ≠ Engl.)

Studyingat the ULB is fun.


No word endings in english7

No word endings in English ?

The form of personal pronouns changes

according to their function (« case ») :

SUBJECTOBJECTPOSSESSIVE

IMEMY, MINE

YOUYOUYOUR, YOURS

HEHIMHIS

SHEHERHER, HERS

ITITITS (NOT IT’S)

WEUSOUR, OURS

THEYTHEMTHEIR, THEIRS


English is not french 1 grammar

While we’re talking about pronouns ...

NOTE THAT THE ENGLISH « YOU »

IS BOTH SINGULAR AND PLURAL

IS BOTH FAMILIAR AND POLITE

SO

IS BOTH « TU » AND « VOUS »


English is not french 1 grammar

NOTE THAT THE FRENCH «ON» WILL BE RENDERED IN DIFFERENT WAYS IN ENGLISH :

Alors, on ne dit même pas merci ?

Won’t you even say thank you ?

On a encore une fois ouvert la rue.

They have broken up the street again !

Chez nous, Monsieur, on ne jure pas.

We don’t swear here at home, Sir.

On m’a volé mon portefeuille

My wallet has been stolen.

On ne parle pas ainsi aux dames.

One does not talk to ladies like that.

Au Moyen Âge on brûlait des sorcières

In the Middle Ages witches were burnt alive.

En Amérique on parle anglais

In America, they speak English / E. Is spoken.


No word endings in english8

No word endings in English ?

Amo

Amas

Amat

Amamus

Amatis

Amant

J’aime

Tu aimes

Il/elle aime

Nous aimons

Vous aimez

Ils aiment

I love

You love

He / she loves

We love

You love

They love

I am

You are

He / she is

We are

You are

They are

It is true that verbal endings are much simpler in Eng.

than in Latin or French :


English is not french 1 grammar

Verbal endings are much simpler in English

than in Latin or French,

But English conjugation can be complex :

Word order is important (patterns)

Not all verbs behave in the same way (AV/NAV)

(especially negation / interrogation)

Some verbs are irregular

The VP has its own internal structure

Complementation is not the same as in French

(verb + inf., verb + that ..., verb + -ing)


English is not french 1 grammar

Word order is important (patterns)

The dog chased the man

The man chased the dog

Youare my best student

Areyou my best student ?

She gave the officera medal.

She gave a medal to the officer.


English is not french 1 grammar

Word order is important (patterns)

SV We exist. It is raining.

SVCs She is a nurse. You are getting fat.

SVAC They live in Brussels. She is there.

SVO He caught a cold. She paid for the drinks.

SVOO We sent him an invitation

I explained the text to them

SVOC He painted the door green

They provided the refugees with blankets

SVOAC He put the book on the table


But word order may differ

But word order may differ :

I saw the dog / I saw it

J’ai vu le chien / je l’ai vu


1 w ord order is important patterns

All these patterns start with SV.

SV agreement is simple, but important :

SV

SVCs

SVAC

SVO

SVOO

SVOC

SVOAC

The dog barks / The dogs bark

1. Word order is important (patterns)

There is a fly in my soup /

There are two flies in my soup


2 not all verbs behave in the same way av nav especially negation interrogation

2. Not all verbs behave in the same way (AV/NAV)

(especially negation / interrogation)


English is not french 1 grammar

Some verbs are irregular

REGULAR I work / she works

I worked / she worked

I have worked / she has worked

IRREGULARI sing / she sings

I sang / she sang

I have sung / she has sung


English is not french 1 grammar

Aux (can, may, must ..., shall/will, do) + [to] + inf.

Have + past participle

Be + present participle

Be + past participle

(A+B) He must have studied to succeed

(A+C) Someone may be watching

(A+D) The doctor must be called at once

(B+C) They have been tapping our phone

(B+D) The flat has been decorated by Terry

(C+D) The book is being republished

(A+B+C) He should have been working for you

(A+B+D) The hostages may have been released

(A+B+C+D) She may have been being harassed

4. The VP has its own internal structure :A VP can contain several auxiliaries, but their order is fixed.


English is not french 1 grammar

5.Complementation is not the same as in French

(verb + inf., verb + that ..., verb + -ing, etc.)

« Je veux que tu viennes avec moi »

* I want that you come with me


English is not french 1 grammar

5.Complementation is not the same as in French

(verb + inf., verb + that ..., verb + -ing, etc.)

« Je veux que tu viennes avec moi »

* I want that you come with me

I want you to come with me


English is not french 1 grammar

Complementation is not the same as in French

(verb + inf., verb + that ..., verb + -ing, etc.)

« Arrête de bouger ! »

* Stop to move !

Stop moving !


English is not french 1 grammar

5.Complementation is not the same as in French

(verb + inf., verb + that ..., verb + -ing, etc.)

I remember kissing my wife for the first time

remember + ing: retrospective

I must remember to buy some bread today

remember + to + inf.: prospective


English is not french 1 grammar

5.Complementation is not the same as in French

Prepositional verbs in French may be

non-prepositional in English, and vice versa :

Resist temptationAnswer a question Survive an accident

Résister à ...Répondre à ... Survivre à ...

Look at the cloudsWait for the bus Listen to the radio

Regarder les nuages Attendre le bus Ecouter la radio


English verbs have different aspects a simple and progressive je mange une pomme

« I eat an apple » (every day)

English verbs have different aspects :

a) simple and progressive :

« Je mange une pomme »

« I am eating an apple »

(here and now)


The progressive

The Progressive

(be + present participle)

  • Dynamic

    not

    « a permanent state »

= « makes a difference »

SHORT

DRY

WET

TALL

« he is growing »

« it is raining »


The progressive1

The Progressive

2. Temporary validity

= 100 % true

at the time of speaking

100 %

0 %

NOW


The progressive2

The Progressive

  • Continuous Duration

    not

    punctual

    or

    – – – – – – – – discontinuous


The progressive3

The Progressive

1.Dynamic Process

2. Temporary validity

3.Continuous Duration

  • At least TWO of these conditions

    must be fulfilled.


The progressive4

1.Dynamic Pocess

2. Temporary validity

3.Continuous Duration

The Progressive

PRESENTShe is talking (now)

I am listening

PASTShe was talking (then)

I was listening

She was talking when, suddenly, the phone rang.

I was listening when, suddenly, I had a new idea.

FUTUREShe will be talking

(at a PTA meeting next week)

I shall not be attending


English is not french 1 grammar

English verbs mark aspect differently :

a) simple and progressive :

What do you do ?

(What’s your job ?)

Hey, what are you doing there ?

(Your present temporary activity)

I am standing in front of the Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower stands in Paris

I know that I love you (stative verbs)

(MacDonald’s : I’m lovin’ it !)


6 english verbs have different aspects b simple and perfective j ai crit une lettre

6.English verbs have different aspects :

b) simple and perfective :

« J’ai écrit une lettre »

« I wrote a letter » (this morning)

« I have written a letter »

(It’s finished)


Another grammatical difference determiners

Another grammatical difference :determiners

  • English has no partitive article :

    Du pain : bread

    Pas de pain : no bread

    Du café fort : strong coffee

    De l’eau trouble : murky water

    De la limonade rouge : red lemonade


Another grammatical difference determiners1

Another grammatical difference :determiners

2. English has no plural indefinite article :

Des élèves : students

Pas d’ enfants : no children

Des ennuis : troubles

Des allumettes : matches


Another grammatical difference determiners2

Another grammatical difference :determiners

3. No definite article for NCNs

(abstractions and substances) :

L’amour Love

La nature Nature

La religion Religion

L’or est précieux Gold is valuable

L’eau est chère Water is expensive


Another grammatical difference determiners3

Another grammatical difference :determiners

4. But (with specifying postmodification) :

L’amour qui dureThe love that lasts

La nature de l’Homme The nature of Man

La religion du Japon The religion of Japan

L’or de TroieThe gold of Troy

L’eau des Océans Thewater of the Oceans


Another grammatical difference

Another grammatical difference :

4. Some of these NCNs (« Uncountables ») are countable in French :

Un conseil : some advice

Quelques conseils : some advice

Deux conseils : two pieces / bits of advice

(Two advices : deux conseillers juridiques,

deux mises en demeure )


Another grammatical difference1

Another grammatical difference :

4. Some of these NCNs (« Uncountables ») are countable in French :

Des informations : Some information

Quelques informations : Some information

Les informations de 20 heures :

The eight o’clock news

Les nouvelles sont bonnes :

The news IS good.


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