sponch
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
SPONCH

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 64

SPONCH - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 141 Views
  • Uploaded on

SPONCH. What is SPONCH?. TEXT SUPPORT. 2-1. SPONCH. S= Sulfur P= Phosphorus O= Oxygen N= Nitrogen C= Carbon H= Hydrogen. 6 most important elements to life. Matter. Anything that occupies space and has mass. Element.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'SPONCH' - egil


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
sponch

SPONCH

What is SPONCH?

sponch3
SPONCH
  • S= Sulfur
  • P= Phosphorus
  • O= Oxygen
  • N= Nitrogen
  • C= Carbon
  • H= Hydrogen

6 most important elements to life

matter
Matter
  • Anything that occupies space and has mass
element
Element
  • Simplest form of matter, cannot be broken down chemically into a simpler kind of matter
periodic table of elements
Periodic Table of Elements
  • Organized table of elements discovered so far
  • Organized according to atomic structure and chemical characteristics
atoms and atomic structure
Atoms and Atomic Structure
  • Atoms are the simplest form of an element that keeps all the properties of the element
model of the atom
Model of the Atom
  • Parts of the atom:
    • Protons (+), Neutrons and Electrons (-)
    • Nucleus: central core of the atom that contains
      • Protons
      • Neutrons
    • Electrons orbit the nucleus
determining atomic structure using the periodic table
Determining Atomic Structure Using the Periodic Table
  • Atomic number = # of protons and is smaller number by the symbol
  • Atomic mass number = # of protons + # of neutrons
  • Assume for now that protons =electrons
types of bonds
Types of Bonds
  • COVALENT – strong bond between elements
  • IONIC- attraction between elements due to opposite charges (weaker than covalent)
  • HYDROGEN – weakest type of bond
covalent
Covalent
  • Sharing of electrons to fill the valence shell
  • Examples– methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2)
ionic
Ionic
  • One element gains electrons becoming ____
  • The other element loses electrons becoming _____________
  • Opposites attract
  • Ionic compounds

Dissolve easily in water

        • EX. NaCl
hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen bonds
  • Caused by partial positive and negative charges
  • Water is best example

ﮦ -

ﮦ +

how does salt dissolve in water
How does salt dissolve in water?
  • Na+ and Cl –
  • Ions become attracted to the partial charges on water
biology

Today’s Agenda:

Biology

I know the following…

*atomic mass

*atomic number

*how to find # of protons

*how to find # of neutrons

*how to find # of electrons

*atomic structure (drawings)

*types of bonds

carbon the building block of life
CARBON – the building block of life!
  • DRAW Carbon

Carbon is able to covalently bond with up to four other elements or form double and triple bonds with other carbon atoms.

carbon
Carbon
  • Carbon chains make up many structures of living organisms.
  • Varying carbon chains’ structure and/or adding various atoms and molecules to the carbon chain will change it’s function
slide23
MAKE CH4

* MAKE C2H6

* MAKE C2H4

group of 4 make
Group of 4 Make…
  • C4H10 – two different ways
ring forms of carbons
Ring Forms of Carbons
  • Make C4H8 with NO DOUBLE BONDS
functional groups
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
  • Add a hydroxyl group (-OH) to a 2 carbon chain
  • You just made ethanol – an alcohol that destroys liver cells
macromolecules
MACROMOLECULES
  • 4 Large Molecules Important to Life
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids
stuff to know

Stuff to know!

  • Chapter 2-3
  • Carbon chem
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids

Chapter 2-1

Atomic #

Atomic mass

Atomic structure

Ionic bonds

Covalent bonds

Hydrogen bonds

Water chemistry

Solutions,Solvents,pH

polarity

carbohydrates ch 2 o n
CARBOHYDRATES (CH2O)n
  • Functions= provides energy (glucose is energy source for cells
  • Monomers = monosaccharides
    • Examples = glucose, fructose and galactose (all 3 = C6H12O6 so they are isomer)
slide30
Two linked = disaccharides
    • Examples = sucrose (glucose and fructose) and lactose
slide31
Polymer = polysaccharides
    • Examples = glycogen (animals) starch (plants)
why bulk up on carbs
Why “bulk-up” on carbs?

Why not eat carbs?

proteins
PROTEINS
  • Monomers = amino acids
  • All amino acids have
    • Amine group (NH2)
    • Carboxyl group (COOH)
  • R-groups differ
functions of proteins
FUNCTIONS of PROTEINS
  • Structural
  • Hormones
  • Transport
  • Histones
  • ENZYMES!!!
lipids
LIPIDS
  • MONOMERS = fatty acids
  • Saturated
  • Unsaturated
complex
COMPLEX
  • TRIGLYCERIDES
  • PHOSPHOLIPIDS
  • WAXES
functions
FUNCTIONS
  • TRIGLYCERIDES – insulation and energy storage
  • PHOSPHOLIPDS – main component in cell membranes
hardening of the arteries
HARDENING OF THE ARTERIES
  • Fats such as cholesterol and saturated fatty acids build up in arteries
  • What other factors contribute to arteriosclerosis?
slide45

Concept Map

Section 2-3

include

that consist of

that consist of

that consist of

that consist of

which contain

which contain

which contain

which contain

slide46

Carbohydrates

Lipids

Nucleic acids

Proteins

Sugars and

starches

Fats and oils

Nucleotides

Amino Acids

Carbon,

hydrogen,

oxygen

Carbon,

hydrogen,

oxygen

Carbon,

hydrogen,oxygen,

nitrogen,

Carbon,hydrogen,

oxygen, nitrogen,

phosphorus

Concept Map

Section 2-3

Carbon

Compounds

include

that consist of

that consist of

that consist of

that consist of

which contain

which contain

which contain

which contain

slide48

Section Outline

Section 2-2

  • 2–2 Properties of Water

A. The Water Molecule

1. Polarity

2. Hydrogen Bonds

B. Solutions and Suspensions

1. Solutions

2. Suspensions

C.Acids, Bases, and pH

1. The pH Scale

2. Acids

3. Bases

4. Buffers

hydrogen bonds49
Hydrogen bonds
  • Caused by partial positive and negative charges
  • Water is best example

ﮦ -

ﮦ +

slide50

Figure 2-9 NaCI Solution

Section 2-2

Cl-

Cl-

Na+

Na+

Water

Water

slide51

Figure 2-9 NaCI Solution

Section 2-2

Cl-

Cl-

Na+

Na+

Water

Water

solutions
Solutions
  • Ions break away from each other and form hydrogen bonds with water (because its polar)
  • Solute- the substance that is dissolved
  • Solvent- almost always water, substance in which the solute is dissolved
  • Ex. Koolaid
        • Solute- koolaid powder
        • Solvent- water
suspension
Suspension
  • Materials do not dissolve when placed in water, instead the water molecules keep them floating
  • Blood- cells are floating in water solution
slide55

pH Scale indicates the concentrion of H+ ions in water

Section 2-2

Oven cleaner

Acids have higher concentration of H+, bases have higher concentration of OH-

The higher the pH, the more BASIC the solution. The lower the pH, the more ACIDIC the solution.

Bleach

Ammonia solution

Increasingly Basic

Soap

Sea water

Human blood

Neutral

Pure water

Milk

Normal

rainfall

Acid rain

Increasingly Acidic

Tomato

juice

Lemon juice

Stomach acid

buffers
Buffers
  • Weak acids and bases that reacts with other acids and bases to change the pH.
  • In the body, buffers help maintain homeostasis
  • Ex. Blood needs to stay within 6.5 to 7.5. Stomach needs to stay around 3. Peptobismo (buffer) raises stomach acid if your stomach is too acidic.
slide58

Interest Grabber continued

Section 2-4

  • 1. What are the reactants when wood burns?
  • Reactants are oxygen and cellulose.
  • 2. What are the products when wood burns?
  • Products are carbon dioxide and water
  • 3. What kinds of energy are given off when wood burns?
  • Light and heat are given off. Some students may also mention sound (the crackling of a fire).
  • 4. Wood doesn’t burn all by itself. What must you do to start a fire? What does this mean in terms of energy?
  • To start a fire, you must light it with a match and kindling. You are giving the wood some energy in the form of heat.
  • 5. Once the fire gets started, it keeps burning. Why don’t you need to keep restarting the fire?
  • Once the fire gets going, it gives off enough heat to start more of the wood burning.
slide59

Section Outline

Section 2-4

  • 2–4 Chemical Reactions and Enzymes

A. Chemical Reactions

B. Energy in Reactions

1. Energy Changes

2. Activation Energy

C. Enzymes

D. Enzyme Action

1. The Enzyme-Substrate Complex

2. Regulation of Enzyme Activity

slide60

Effect of Enzymes

Section 2-4

Reaction pathway

without enzyme

Activation energy

without enzyme

Activation

energy

with enzyme

Reactants

Reaction pathway

with enzyme

Products

slide61

Figure 2-19 Chemical Reactions

Section 2-4

Energy-Releasing Reaction

Energy-Absorbing Reaction

Activation

energy

Products

Activation energy

Reactants

Reactants

Products

slide62

Figure 2-19 Chemical Reactions

Section 2-4

Energy-Releasing Reaction

Energy-Absorbing Reaction

Activation

energy

Products

Activation energy

Reactants

Reactants

Products

ad