China in revolutions from 1911 to 1949
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China in Revolutions from 1911 to 1949. Session 4. Table of Contents. I. Sun Yeh-sen (孙中山) ’ Nationalist Revolution II. The Chinese Communist Revolution III. Alliance & Competition between the KMT and the CCP The First United Front The Second United Front IV. The Civil War

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China in Revolutions from 1911 to 1949

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China in revolutions from 1911 to 1949

China in Revolutions from 1911 to 1949

Session 4


Table of contents

Table of Contents

I. Sun Yeh-sen (孙中山)’ Nationalist Revolution

II. The Chinese Communist Revolution

III. Alliance & Competition between the KMT and the CCP

The First United Front

The Second United Front

IV. The Civil War

V. Factors Led to the Victory of the CCP and Failure of KMT


I sun yah sen s nationalist revolution

I. Sun Yah-sen’s Nationalist Revolution

  • Overthrow Manchurian Rule internally and drive imperialist powers externally

  • Three People’s Principles (三民主义)

    1)People’s National Consciousness / Nationalism (民族主义)

    2)People’s Rights / Democracy (民权主义)

    3)People’s Livelihood / Socialism (民生主义)

    • Yuan Shikai vs. Sun Yeh-sen

    • Yuan put an end to his life once he claimed to be an emperor


Sun yeh sen yuan shikai

Sun Yeh-sen & Yuan Shikai孙中山袁世凯


China was under control of warlords

China was under control of Warlords

  • Yuan Shikai and his emperor dream

  • Northern Factions

    • Anhui clique

    • Zhili clique

    • Fengtian clique

  • Southern Factions

    • Yunnan clique

    • Old Guangxi clique

    • Sichuan clique

    • Nationalist army

  • Minor factions


Ii the birth of the chinese communist party

II. The Birth of the Chinese Communist Party

The May Fourth Movement in 1919

  • The Paris Conference in 1919

  • President Wilson’s dilemma

  • Lenin’s promise to return the land to China

  • The model of the Soviet Union

  • Establishment of the CCP in 1921 with the support from the Cominturn (共产国际)


Iii alliance competition between kmt ccp

III. Alliance & Competition between KMT & CCP

  • Sun Yah-sen’s New Policies

    • United with the Soviet Union

      • Reorganized KMT

      • Established his own army

    • United with the CCP

      • Allowed CCP members to join the KMT as individuals rather than a party

    • Support workers and peasants

  • Sun passed away in 1925

  • Chiang Kai-shek succeeded Sun and changed Sun’s policy:


The first united front and the north expedition 1924 1927

The First United Front and The North Expedition1924-1927


The first split in 1927

The First Split in 1927

  • The purge committee (清党运动) in 1927 led to the split of the alliance (4/12/1927), and a large number of communists were killed in Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Fuzhou, Guangzhou and Wuhan.

  • The Long March (长征)over 9000 kilometers from 1934-5. Red Army reduced from 87,000 to less than 10,000 when they arrived in Yan’an.


The long march route

The Long March Route


Anti japanese war and the second united front

Anti-Japanese War and the Second United Front

  • Japan occupied Northeast in 1931

  • Japan invaded China in 1937

  • The Rape of Nanjing

  • Xi’an Incident

  • The Second United Front

  • Japan lost in 1945


Iv the civil war from 1945 1949

IV. The Civil War from 1945-1949

  • F. D. Roosevelt’s grant strategy of the world

  • Patrick Hurley’s Mediation from 1944-45

  • Gorge Marshall’s Mediation from 1945-47

  • The Civil War between Chiang and Mao from 1946-1949

  • Competition between Washington and Moscow

  • Three military campaigns from 1947-49

  • Mao defeated Chiang and established the People’s Republic of China in 1949


  • Three military campaigns

    Three Military Campaigns 三大战役

    • Three Military Campaigns

      • Liaoning-Shengyang Campaign in Sept. 12 to Nov. 2, 1948

        • 470,000

      • Peiking-Tianjing Campaign from Nov. 29, 1948-Jan. 31, 1949

      • 520,000

      • Huaihai Campaign from Nov. 6, 1948—Jan. 10,1949

      • 800,000

    • The Establishment of the People’s Republic of China


    V factors led to the victory of the ccp and failure of kmt

    V. Factors Led to the Victory of the CCP and Failure of KMT

    • Mao’s policy to win peasants’ support

    • Mao’s military strategies

    • KMT’s corruption

    • Chiang’s failure in financial policy


    Iv discussion

    IV. Discussion

    • What are Sun Yat-sen's Three People’s Principles and three new policies of the Nationalist Revolution?

    • Why did Chiang Kai-shek change Sun's principles and policies?

    • What factors led to the birth of Chinese Communist Party?

    • What were Mao's political and military strategies which helped Mao won the civil war?


    Thank you

    Thank you!

    Questions?


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