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The Ten Keys Of Reading Achievement: Unlocking The Potential Of Every Child. Sponsored by the Oregon Dept. of Special Education with the Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Professional Technical Education in collaboration with the Oregon Parent Training and Information Center

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The Ten Keys Of Reading Achievement: Unlocking The Potential Of Every Child

  • Sponsored by the Oregon Dept. of Special Education with the Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Professional Technical Education in collaboration with the Oregon Parent Training and Information Center

  • Funding for these trainings is provided through the

  • Special Education State Improvement Grant


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Purpose of family trainings:

  • To successfully promote reading achievement among all Oregon's students in collaboration with their families, educators, and communities.


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Family trainings emphasize:

  • Scientifically-based reading research.

  • Effective practices in instructional approaches.

  • Critical contributions of families.


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Key One: Understanding Concepts Of Reading Theory


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Early Reading Acquisition

  • Emergent literacy begins in infancy. The moment you began speaking to your child, you became your child’s first reading teacher.


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Emergent Literacy Skills

  • Vocabulary: knowing the names of things.

  • Print awareness: understanding that English follows basic rules.

  • Narrative skills: being able to understand and tell stories.

  • Letter knowledge: knowing that each letter differs in appearance, name, and sound.

  • Print motivation: A child’s interest and pleasure with books.


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  • Families contribute to a child’s emergent literacy by talking to and reading to their children.

  • Research has demonstrated that rich language exposure at an early age is one of the greatest contributors to early reading achievement.


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From Reading To Meaning

  • Bottom-Up Approach

    • Focus on teaching skills needed to read such as phonics, letter recognition, and decoding strategies.

  • Top-Down Approach

    • Focus on meaningful reading and writing activities (whole language).

  • Bi-directional Approach

    • A holistic model that draws upon bottom-up and top-down approaches.


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Five Big Ideas in Beginning Reading

  • Phonemic awareness

  • Alphabetic principle

  • Vocabulary

  • Comprehension

  • Reading fluency


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Reading: An Interactive Process

  • Individual life experiences form our beliefs (schemata) and help us make sense of new information.

  • Providing support (scaffolding) can help a child ‘reach’ a new concept or skill.

  • Readers must

    • Develop the ability to gauge their understanding of a piece of text, and

    • Develop skills to help when they do not understand (metacognition).


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Individual Differences In Reading Development

  • Reading development varies according to individual differences.

  • Whatever a child’s reading ability, there is always room for growth.

  • Reading development is a continuous cycle.


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Detecting Reading Challenges

  • With the right combination of detection and instruction, all children can learn to read.

  • Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skill (DIBELS) is one assessment tool.


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Key Two: Applying Reading Theory


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Instructional Approaches

  • Explicit instruction.

  • Grouping for instruction.

  • Feedback to students.

  • Teaching to mastery.

  • Guided oral reading.

  • Allocated and engaged time.

  • Peer learning.


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Age Appropriate Instruction: Kindergarten

  • Oral language activities

  • Read alouds

  • Activities that demonstrate writing

  • Print-directed activities

  • Phonemic awareness activities

  • Word recognition activities


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Age Appropriate Instruction: First Grade

  • Continued instruction in sound structures.

  • Daily independent reading of texts.

  • Spelling-sound correspondences activities.

  • Building recognition of sight words.

  • Continue development of phonemic skills.

  • Development of comprehension skills.


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Age Appropriate Instruction: Second And Third Grades

  • Continued instruction in phonemic awareness and alphabetic principle.

  • Spelling instruction of simple to more complex.

  • Explicit vocabulary instruction.

  • Introduction to text-based learning.

  • Building comprehension and background knowledge.

  • Increased involvement in discussion about books.

  • Learning to write about the ideas encountered in their text.


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Extending The Curriculum

  • Early language experiences impact your child’s future in school.

  • Help your child develop a love for reading.

  • Help your child make time for reading.


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Read in a cozy place.

Read anything the child likes.

Read and sing.

Select books with colorful pictures.

Involve the child.

Read a book you create together.

Hold a prop while reading.

Keep books where child can reach.

Read predictable stories.

Reading Together:


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Make Time To Read

  • Develop reading rituals.

  • Select several books to read at a time.

  • Allow ½ hour before bed to read.

  • Give older children a choice between napping or reading.

  • Schedule time into vacation for reading.

  • Set aside a family time for reading together.


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Different Ways To Think About Reading:Different Learning Styles

  • For bilingual children, choose books written in two languages. Ask the child to translate parts.

  • Build a stock of familiar stories. Act out the stories from memory.

  • Prolong the story by asking, “What happens next?”


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  • Put your child into the story by asking, “what would you have done?”

  • Ask questions about illustrations and play games:

    • Find all the green things, or circles, or count the eyes.

    • What do you think the (frog) is feeling?


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Key Three: Supporting “At Promise Readers”


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Who Are “At Promise Readers”?

  • At promise readers are those children for whom reading does not come with relative ease.


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Getting The Help Your Child Needs

  • Families are often the first to detect that their child is having difficulties reading.

  • Early identification and intervention can lessen future problems.


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If You Have Concerns About Your Child’s Learning

  • Talk to your child’s teacher or school personnel.

  • Contact the Oregon Parent Training and Information Center, a statewide family advocacy organization at

  • www.orpti.org

  • Or call their Help Line at

  • (888-891-6784)


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Balanced Approaches To Support At Promise Readers

  • Direct instruction

  • Scaffolding

  • Inclusion

  • Assistive technology


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Direct Instruction

  • Explicitly teach components of reading.

  • Show children what they are expected to do.

  • Assist children to achieve goals.


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Scaffolding & Scaffolded Reading Experience (SRE)

  • Scaffolding is when an adult or peer assists and guides a child so that they can do something they may not be able to do without support.

  • SRE emphasize the social nature of learning and provide assistance depending on an individual’s needs.


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Inclusion

  • At promise readers benefit from inclusion through:

    • Promotion of social interaction

    • Fostering of friendships

    • Increased models of language and language use

    • Positive behavioral support through peer role models

    • Enhanced self development


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Inclusionary Practices For Readers

  • Small group work

  • Read alouds

  • Peer mentors and reading buddies


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Transitions In School

  • Smooth transitions require:

    • Collaboration between teachers, specialists, and family.

    • Supportive school policies.

    • Consideration of the child’s learning needs and transitional needs.


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Focusing On The Promise: A Time For Optimism

  • Today, more children have access to optimal educational programs.

  • Research and practice show that all children can achieve success.

  • Shared planning and collaboration are critical to continued success.


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Key Four: Culturally Appropriate Literature


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Defining Culture

  • Culture is learned and dynamic while ethnicity is one’s bio-genetic inheritance.


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Defining Culture continued

  • Culture includes how we view the world, how we live, how we speak and celebrate, and how we express ourselves through language, movement, sound, and art.


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Cultural groups within ethnicities.

World religions.

Languages.

Non-traditional families.

Groups with different physical and mental abilities.

Defining Culturally Appropriate Literature

  • Culturally appropriate literature takes into consideration:


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The Importance Of Culturally Appropriate Children’s Literature

  • Culturally appropriate children’s literature acts as a strong motivational force to read when there is enough of the familiar to make each child feel involved, and enough of the different to intrigue and entice them.


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The Importance of Culturally Appropriate Children’s Literature continued

  • Reading helps children develop a sense of self and others.

  • Multicultural stories help children to learn about themselves and the connectedness of all people.

  • Reading multicultural literature helps us understand that our way of interacting with the world is not the only way.


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Impact On The “Majority” Culture.

  • If what we know about ourselves—our history, our culture, our national identity—is distorted by absences, denials, and incompleteness, then our identity as individuals and as Americans, is fragmented.

  • William Pinar


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Rethinking Multicultural Education

  • In approaching multicultural education we must think holistically about curriculum and that requires rethinking and questioning what we do at school and at home.


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Key Five: Connecting Home And School


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Ideas For Parents And Teachers Working Together

  • Family Lending Library

  • Family Classbooks

  • Interactive Homework

  • Family Hosted Book Fairs

  • Pets (and Pals) Partner in Reading


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More Ideas For Parents And Teachers Working Together

  • Family Calendars

  • Involvement of Families form Diverse Cultures

  • Learning about Language and Each Other

  • Class Cookbooks


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Case Study #1: Partners & Purpose

  • Partners: Families of 28 children, local educational administration, school reading specialist, school psychologist, and teachers.

  • Purpose: To increase the amount of time families spend reading with their children.


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Case Study #1: The Program

  • “Chili Kickoff” recruitment event.

  • Special after-school literary events.

  • Calendar for participating families:

    • to record amount of time spent reading with their child.

    • listing literary events, extended library hours, and reading tips.

  • At the end of the month, calendar pages entered into drawing for prizes.


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Case Study #1: Results

  • Families and children reported more enjoyment reading at home.

  • Greater measurable reading progress for children.


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Things To Remember

  • We each have a unique contribution to make.

  • Our involvement will vary over time as the demands of our life shift or we acquire new skills

  • When choosing what role to play, consider what will most benefit your child, your family, your classroom.


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Key Six: Effective Schools


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The Seven Correlates of Effective Schools

  • Instructional leadership

  • Clear and focused mission

  • Safe and orderly environment

  • Climate of high expectations


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The Seven Correlates of Effective Schools continued

  • Frequent monitoring of student progress

  • Positive home-to-school relations

  • Opportunity to learn and student time on task


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Effective Classrooms for Reading Achievement

  • Small group work

  • Independent reading

  • Coached phonics

  • Higher level questioning

  • Communication with parents


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Examining Your School’s Effectiveness:A Sampling of Questions

  • Policies

    • Does the school’s mission statement affirm that all students will attain mastery of essential skills needed for academic success?

  • Leadership

    • How are students, families, and teachers invited to share ideas and resources?


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Examining Your School’s Effectiveness:A Sampling of Questions

  • Communication

    • How do teachers and families communicate with each other about a child’s reading progress?

  • Community

    • Which community partners has the school invited to participate in reading achievement?


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Key Seven: Community Partnerships


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Why Form Partnerships?

  • Partnerships provide rich opportunities to benefit from the wealth of resources available in a community.

  • Community partnerships unleash a host of talents that support our children and reward all who participate.


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Examples Of Partnerships

  • S.M.A.R.T.—Start Making a Reader Today

  • S.U.N.—Schools Uniting Neighborhoods Initiative

  • Even Start

  • Family Empowerment Program at Arleta Elementary School

  • After School Alliances http//www.afterschoolalliance.org


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Key Eight: Holistic Assessment


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  • Assessments are helpful in diagnosing and monitoring factors that may affect a child’s reading achievement


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Types Of Assessment

  • Cognitive tests measure verbal and non-verbal language, problem solving, attention, memory and reasoning.

  • Family & child strengths evaluations focus on what the child can do well.


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Types Of Assessment

  • Health assessments can determine concerns such as illness, chronic disorders, hearing and visual impairments.

  • Social and emotional assessment can determine if problems might be resolved through intervention such as counseling or a change in programming.


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Methods Of Assessment

  • A test is “standardized” when the same test is given to all children in the same way. The same materials are used and the same amount of time is allowed for all children.

  • A standardized test has been given to large groups of children to establish a “norm” or average. This norm provides a comparison for interpreting the results of an individual child’s test.


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  • Portfolio assessment involves creating a collection of your child’s work. Portfolios can include samples of writing, drawing, math, or any subject area being assessed. A portfolio is useful for showing progress through the school year or from grade to grade.


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  • Functional behavior assessment analyzes the purpose of a child’s behavior by asking questions of the child, teachers, parents, and other people who know the child well. The assessment seeks to understand the causes and results of the behavior.


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How Assessments Are Used

  • Measure academic progress and knowledge in a subject area.

  • Compare schools within a community.

  • Measure children’s progress over time.

  • Help design the curriculum.

  • Determine need for specialized services.


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Making Assessment Work For You And Your Child

  • If a child is having trouble in school, an assessment may be requested by the school or the family.

  • If you have concerns about your child’s performance speak directly to your child’s teacher.

  • Family participation is essential in providing holistic assessment.


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Key Nine: Developing A Reading Achievement Plan


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What Is A Reading Achievement Plan?

  • A reading achievement plan is a tool to help you help your child.

  • A reading achievement plan clearly outlines specific goals to support your child as a developing reader.

  • These goals are designed based on the child’s individual strengths and needs.


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Parts Of A Reading Achievement Plan

  • Statement about child’s current reading level.

  • Statement of reading goals.

  • Review of child’s strengths & interests.


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Parts Of A Reading Achievement Plan

  • Description of instructional strategies in classroom.

  • Descriptions of instructional activities in the home.

  • An assessment schedule.

  • Review of collaborations and partnerships.


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Key Ten: Uniting The Keys


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Ten Keys

  • When we unite the keys can we unlock the treasure of reading achievement.


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Families

  • Families provide the foundation for reading achievement.


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Partnerships

  • Families play a central role in developing a child’s skill and passion for reading.

  • They are supported in this task by teachers, school, and community.


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United In Our Efforts

  • Bridging home, school, and community we can ensure that all children are at promise to read.


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“Leave No Child Behind”

  • In demonstrating the spirit of “Leave No Child Behind” let us be united in our efforts to support reading achievement.


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