Chapter 9 chemical bonding i lewis theory
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Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding I: Lewis Theory PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding I: Lewis Theory. Outline Lewis Theory Types of Chemical Bonds Ionic Born-Haber Cycle Lattice Energy Covalent Electronegativity Lewis Structures Bond Energy Bond Length Metallic. Potential Energy versus Distance.

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Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding I: Lewis Theory

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Chapter 9 chemical bonding i lewis theory

Chapter 9Chemical Bonding I: Lewis Theory

  • Outline

  • Lewis Theory

  • Types of Chemical Bonds

    • Ionic

      • Born-Haber Cycle

      • Lattice Energy

    • Covalent

      • Electronegativity

      • Lewis Structures

      • Bond Energy

      • Bond Length

    • Metallic


Potential energy versus distance

Potential Energy versus Distance


Where is the electrostatic potential most energetically favorable

Where is the electrostatic potential most energetically favorable?


How are bonds classified

How are bonds classified?


How are bonds classified1

How are bonds classified?


What happens when sodium metal and chlorine gas are placed in the same reaction flask

What happens when sodium metal and chlorine gas are placed in the same reaction flask?

Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e


Chapter 9 chemical bonding i lewis theory

Lattice Energies


Chapter 9 examples formation of ionic compounds

Chapter 9: Examples – Formation of Ionic Compounds

Calculate the enthalpy of formation of sodium chloride from it’s elements. Given:

Na (s) → Na (g) +107.3 kJ/mol

Na (g) → Na+(g) + 1 e- +495.8 kJ/mol

½ Cl2 (g) → Cl (g) +122 kJ/mol

Cl (g) + 1 e- → Cl- (g) -348.6 kJ/mol

Na+ (g) + Cl- (g) → NaCl (s) -787 kJ/mol


Chapter 9 examples formation of ionic compounds1

Chapter 9: Examples – Formation of Ionic Compounds

Calculate the energy released in kJ/mol when sodium iodide is formed.

Na (s) + ½ I2 (s) → NaI (s)

The energy of vaporization of elemental sodium is 107 kJ/mol. The ionization energy of sodium is 486 kJ/mol. The sum of the enthalpies of dissociation and vaporization of elemental iodine is 214 kJ/mol and the electron affinity of iodine is -295 kJ/mol. The lattice energy of sodium iodide is -704 kJ/mol.


Chapter 9 examples formation of ionic compounds2

Chapter 9: Examples – Formation of Ionic Compounds

Calculate the energy released in kJ/mol when lithium hydride is formed. The heat of vaporization of elemental lithium is 161 kJ/mol, the ionization energy of lithium is 520 kJ/mol. The dissociation energy of hydrogen gas is 436 kJ/mol and the electron affinity of a gaseous hydrogen atom is -73 kJ/mol. The lattice energy of lithium hydride is -917 kJ/mol.


Chapter 9 examples formation of ionic compounds3

Chapter 9: Examples – Formation of Ionic Compounds

Determine the energy of formation of magnesium bromide. Given:

Mg (s) → Mg (g) +147.7 kJ/mol

Mg (g) → Mg+(g) + 1 e- +737.7 kJ/mol

Mg+(g) → Mg2+ (g) + 1 e- +1,450.7 kJ/mol Br2 (g) → 2 Br (g) +193 kJ/mol

Br (g) + 1 e- → Br- (g) -325 kJ/mol

Mg2+ (g) + 2 Br- (g) → MgBr2 (s) -2,440 kJ/mol


How does atomic size affect lattice energy

How does atomic size affect lattice energy?


How does ionic charge affect lattice energy

How does ionic charge affect lattice energy?


Bond polarity

Bond Polarity

NaCl

HCl

Cl-Cl


Bond polarity1

ENCl = 3.0

3.0 − 3.0 = 0

Pure Covalent

ENCl = 3.0

ENH = 2.1

3.0 – 2.1 = 0.9

Polar Covalent

ENCl = 3.0

ENNa = 0.9

3.0 – 0.9 = 2.1

Ionic

Bond Polarity

Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e


Bond length the optimum distance between nuclei in a covalent bond

Bond length - the optimum distance between nuclei in a covalent bond.


Chapter 9 examples bond energy

Chapter 9: Examples – Bond Energy

Approximate the ΔHrxn for the production of ammonia by the Haber process:

N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g)  2 NH3 (g)


Chapter 9 examples bond energy1

Chapter 9: Examples – Bond Energy

Approximate the ΔHrxn for the combustion of methane:

CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g)  CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)


Chapter 9 examples bond energy2

Chapter 9: Examples – Bond Energy

Approximate the ΔHrxn for the halogenation of acetylene gas:

C2H2 (g) + 2 Cl2 (g)  C2H2Cl4 (g)


Metal bonding

Metal Bonding


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